https://www.bettycjung.net/COVID-19.htm

COVID-19

Coronovirus
Graphic source: https://www.wowt.com/content/news/CDC-updates-on-coronavirus-workers-seek-to-prevent-outbreak-pandemic-568081961.html

COVID-19 AKA 2019 Novel Coronavirus; 2019-nCoV
Internet Resources

COVID-19 webpage QR Code

Scan and save this Webpage to your mobile device!

Betty C. Jung logo


A - L M - Z


Suggested Citation: Jung, B.C. (2020-2021). COVID-19 Internet Resources.
Web document: https://www.bettycjung.net/COVID-19.htm


Mission: To provide a one-stop Web resource page with factual information about the COVID-19 Pandemic

According to PEW , social media users share COVID-19 information mostly from news sources (74%) and very little from health and science resources (1%). This could mean that people do not know where to look for credible science-based information about COVID-19.

On June 18, 2020, JAMA reported "Coronavirus disease 2019-related knowledge and behaviors were associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. African American participants, men, and people younger than 55 years were less likely to know how the disease is spread, were less likely to know the symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019, and left the home more often."

Furthermore, the prevalence of Coronavirus myths addressed by the World Health Organization indicates that there is much disinformation and misinformation on the Internet about the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

Therefore, I have decided to create this resource page for those interested in learning more about the pandemic. It is my hope, as Master Certified Health Education Specialist (MCHES®), that you will be able get the credible information you need here to make the decisions you have to make to deal with the pandemic in your life. I am dedicated to keeping this page updated with vetted sources, and welcome your feedback. (July 6, 2020)


Comments,suggestions, dead link reports:


Table of Content (Major sections)


COVID-19 Pandemic


CDC has three numbers you should consider to know if you've been exposed to the coronavirus: If you've been within six feet of an infected person for at least 15 minutes starting from 48 hours before the infected person began feeling sick, you are considered to have been in close contact with the virus. (Source: https://bestlifeonline.com/exposed-to-coronavirus/)

A build-up of 21st century forces resulting in illness

COVID, 5 years in the making
Graphic source: https://www.bmj.com/content/373/bmj.n657

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Public Health Technical Reports


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Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Visualization Sites


United States

COVID and US deaths
Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid-19-is-the-number-one-cause-of-death-in-the-u-s-in-early-2021/


Video source: NBC News

Healthcare & Hospitalization

Vaccinations

Connecticut

Other COVID-19 Trackers

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COVID-19 Research Information


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COVID-19 Databases, Registries, Repositories


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CDC & Other Federal Agency Guidance


CDC Guidance

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Public Health Issues


US had more cases in reopening
Graphic source; NY Times

July 8, 2020 Not Ready for Reopening
Graphic source; https://www.vox.com/2020/5/28/21270515/coronavirus-covid-reopen-economy-social-distancing-states-map-data

ICU capacity
Graphic source; https://www.vox.com/2020/5/28/21270515/coronavirus-covid-reopen-economy-social-distancing-states-map-data

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Epidemiology of COVID-19


Infectious Disease Models


Outbreak Models
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-20-582SP

COVID model
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-20-582SP


COVID-19 Metrics


7-day average
Graphic source: https://www.propublica.org/article/how-to-understand-covid-19-numbers

5 percent positivity rate
Graphic source: https://www.propublica.org/article/how-to-understand-covid-19-numbers

Death rate
Graphic source: https://www.propublica.org/article/how-to-understand-covid-19-numbers

4 measures
Graphic source: https://www.propublica.org/article/how-to-understand-covid-19-numbers

COVID risk levels
Graphic source: https://globalepidemics.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/key_metrics_and_indicators_v4.pdf

COVID Risk level and type of control
Graphic source: https://globalepidemics.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/key_metrics_and_indicators_v4.pdf

Contact Tracing
Graphic source: https://globalepidemics.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/key_metrics_and_indicators_v4.pdf

Contact Tracing and Testing
Graphic source: https://globalepidemics.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/key_metrics_and_indicators_v4.pdf

Contact Tracing
Graphic source: https://globalepidemics.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/key_metrics_and_indicators_v4.pdf

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COVID-19 Dust Surveillance



COVID-19 Genomic Surveillance



COVID-19 Hotspot Surveillance


March 9, 2021 Hotspots
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/world/coronavirus-maps.html

Hotspot Surveillance
Graphic source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877584520300320

Hotspot Surveillance Over Time
Graphic source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877584520300320


COVID-19 Wastewater Surveillance


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COVID-19 Outbreak


March 9, 2021 Per capital
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/world/coronavirus-maps.html

November 7, 2020
Graphic source: https://www.vox.com/2020/11/8/21550345/50-million-confirmed-cases-covid-19-worldwide

US Wave
Graphic source: https://www.vox.com/2020/11/8/21550345/50-million-confirmed-cases-covid-19-worldwide

Epidemic curve of daily cases of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Hong Kong by symptom onset date and colored by cluster category (n=1,038).
From: Clustering and superspreading potential of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Hong Kong

Hong Kong Cluster Outbreak
Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-1092-0/figures/1

US early spread
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6922e1.htm

Timeline Comparing the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreaks

SARS and COVID-19 Timeline
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762130

Comparison SARS and nCoV
Graphic Source: NY Times Graphic, via @FelicityCarus #MackayIM

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COVID-19 Outbreak Trends


Video source: https://www.vox.com/future-perfect/21353986/coronavirus-covid-pandemic-usa-america-maps-charts-data

Dec 31, 2020 outbreak trends
Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/03/30/822491838/coronavirus-world-map-tracking-the-spread-of-the-outbreak

Global Deaths
Graphic source: https://www.cnn.com/2020/09/28/health/coronavirus-million-global-deaths-intl/index.html

US COVID-19 changing demographics
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6939e1.htm

US COVID-19 changing demographics
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6939e1.htm

Covid September 2, 2020
Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/20651/locations-by-number-of-confirmed-wuhan-coronavirus-cases/

Country responses early on
Graphic source: https://www.brookings.edu/2020/04/02/the-early-days-of-a-global-pandemic-a-timeline-of-covid-19-spread-and-government-interventions/

COVID-19 history
Graphic source; https://twitter.com/bettycjung/status/1282357711703887872

American Nations
Graphic source: https://www.pressherald.com/2020/07/05/how-the-geography-of-the-pandemic-is-determined-by-centuries-old-regional-differences/

US COVID-19 trends
Graphic source: https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2020/06/18/trump-claims-coronavirus-pandemic-is-ending-data-experts-disagree/

Disease progression
Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Business%20Functions/Risk/Our%20Insights/COVID%2019%20Implications%20for%20business/COVID%2019%20May%2027/COVID-19-Facts-and-Insights-June-1-vF.ashx

Percentage of emergency department (ED) visits for COVID-19-like illness (CLI), in 14 counties (three in California and Washington [A]; four in Illinois, Louisiana, Massachusetts, and Michigan [B]; and seven in New York [C]) -National Syndromic Surveillance System, February 1-April 7, 2020

U.S. coronavirus outbreak
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6922e1.htm

Outbreak Pace
Graphic source: https://www.cnbc.com/2020/05/21/global-coronavirus-cases-surpass-5-million-johns-hopkins-data-shows.html

countries in danger
Graphic source: https://twitter.com/EricTopol/status/1260659915816792064

How to beat covid
Graphic source: https://twitter.com/yaneerbaryam/status/1256769252369072134

Estimated Prevalence
Graphic source: https://www.webmd.com/lung/news/20200424/more-data-bolsters-higher-covid-prevalence

April 17, 2020 stats February 24, 2020 stats

Shifting Global Burden March 11, 2020
Graphic source: https://www.wsj.com/articles/u-s-coronavirus-cases-top-1-000-11583917794

Hotspots
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6933e2.htm

FIGURE 1. Number of COVID-19 hotspot alerts, by county and number of days* meeting hotspot criteria for (A) March 8-April 30, (B) May 1-31, (C) June 1-July 15, and (D) entire period - United States, March 8-July 15, 2020

Hotspot Maps
Map source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6933e2.htm

FIGURE 2. Daily number of COVID-19 hotspot alerts, by urbanicity, and 7-day average of new reported cases - United States, March 8-July 15, 2020

Hotspots Urbanicity
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6933e2.htm

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The Search for Patient Zero


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Zoonotic Origins


Emerging infections
Graphic source: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/who-convened-global-study-of-origins-of-sars-cov-2-china-part-annexes.pdf

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COVID-19 in Animals


WHO - COVID-19 in animals
Graphic source: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/who-convened-global-study-of-origins-of-sars-cov-2-china-part-annexes.pdf

WHO Animal spillover
Graphic source: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/who-convened-global-study-of-origins-of-sars-cov-2-china-part-annexes.pdf

Susceptible animals
Graphic source: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/who-convened-global-study-of-origins-of-sars-cov-2-china-part-annexes.pdf

Animals and COVID-19
Old World primates and great apes have identical amino acids at the binding site to humans and are predicted to be at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. (Infographic by Matt Verdolivo/UC Davis)
Graphic source: https://www.ucdavis.edu/news/genomic-analysis-reveals-many-animal-species-may-be-vulnerable-sars-cov-2-infection

Covid in animals
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6923e3.htm

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Genomic Sequencing Characteristics


"Experts’ recommendations on how many cases should be sequenced vary, but many say sequencing around 5 percent of cases would begin to adequately show the spread of variants circulating at low levels." (https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/03/06/us/coronavirus-variant-sequencing.html)

Genomic sequencing
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/gao-21-426sp

NYC Covid strain
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6928a5.htm

COVID19 genome
Graphic source: https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/06/09/2008176117

COVID19 genome
Graphic source: https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/06/09/2008176117

Sar2 genome
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/30/science/coronavirus-mutations.html

Key Coronavirus proteins
Graphic source: Nature Briefing

COVID structure
Graphic source; https://www.zmescience.com/science/cells-infected-coronavirus-95362/


Video source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/22/us/coronavirus-sequencing.html

Blood Type

Blood Type and Covid
Graphic source: https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/932333

Blood type and covid
Graphic source: https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/932333

Blood type and positive COVID test
Graphic source: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/935827

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Genomics

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Genetic Mutations; COVID-19 Variants

COVID-19 variants
Graphic source: https://www.webmd.com/lung/news/20210324/variants-of-variants-seen-in-covid-ravaged-brazil

US COVID19 variants
Graphic source: https://usafacts.org/articles/1-in-6-americans-are-fully-vaccinated-and-4-more-new-things-about-covid-19/

US - UK variants
Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7003e2.htm

US - UK variants
Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7003e2.htm

US - UK variants
Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7003e2.htm

March 9, 2021 US Variants
Graphic source: https://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/map-track-spread-covid-19-variants-across-united-states-n1256131 March 9, 2021

Minnesota Variant
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7008e1.htm

Variants and Strains
Graphic source: https://cosmosmagazine.com/health/medicine/mutations-variants-and-strains/

New Variants
Graphic source: https://cov-lineages.org/global_report.html

Variant B1.1.7
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7003e2.htm

COVID-19 Variant reported by Japan, January 11, 2021

Japan variant
Graphic source: https://www.niid.go.jp/niid/ja/diseases/ka/corona-virus/2019-ncov/10107-covid19-33.html

JAMA - COVID variants
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2775006

B117 variant
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/21/health/new-covid-strain-uk.html

Tracking mutations
Graphic source: https://time.com/5870481/coronavirus-origins/

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Case Definition


3 stages of covid
Graphic source: https://www.ccjm.org/content/early/2020/12/01/ccjm.87a.ccc066

COVID-19 Framework
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2773338

WHO case definition
Graphic source: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/927860

Flu vs Covid
Graphic source: PriMed

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Contact Tracing


Contact Tracing

Contact Tracing

Contact Tracing
Graphic source for 3: https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/public-sector/our-insights/contact-tracing-for-covid-19-new-considerations-for-its-practical-application

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Disease Distribution


one in five infected
Graphic source: https://www.economist.com/graphic-detail/2020/12/10/almost-one-in-five-americans-may-have-been-infected-with-covid-19

18-22 Covid Surveillance
Graphic Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6939e4.htm

18-22 COVID testing
Graphic Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6939e4.htm

18-22 Race Ethnicity with COVID
Graphic Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6939e4.htm

Rise in COVID-19 kids
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/08/31/us/coronavirus-cases-children.html

COVID-19 incidence among school-aged children aged 5-11 years (N = 101,503) and 12-17 years (N = 175,782), by week - United States, March 1-September 19, 2020

COVID-19 and kids
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6939e2.htm

Percentage of SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests with positive results and test volume, by week for school-aged children aged 5-11 years and 12-17 years - United States, May 3-September 19, 2020

COVID-19 testing and kids
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6939e2.htm

California cases
Graphic source: https://www.mercurynews.com/2020/06/16/age-of-covid-19-cases-dropping-in-california/

Cases by agegroups
Graphic source; https://www.statista.com/chart/21173/hospitalization-icu-admission-and-fatality-rates-for-reported-coronavirus-cases/

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Disease Process


The Process of How SARS-CoV-2 Infects the Host

How Sars2 infects cells
Graphic source: https://www.acrobiosystems.com/A1213-The-Process-of-How-SARS-CoV-2-Infects-the-Host.html

HIV latent infections
Graphic source: https://earthsky.org/human-world/does-coronavirus-linger-in-body-immune-system-covid

COVID pathophysiology
Graphic source: https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiol.2020201629

immunogenesis
Graphic source; https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2768391

ACE2 is the target for the novel coronavirus

ACE2
Graphic source: https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-alzheimers-disease/jad200581


Graphic source: https://hms.harvard.edu/news/how-covid-19-causes-loss-smell

NeuroCovid Stages

Neurocovid states
Graphic source: https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-alzheimers-disease/jad200581

Scheme of the effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in obese individuals.

Obesity disease process
Graphic source: https://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(20)30477-8/fulltext

How Coronavirus Infects People
Graphic source: https://www.livescience.com/covid-19-superspreader-singing.html (Image credit: Nicholas Forder)

AGE WELL: On average, as this chart reveals, chronic diseases increase with aging, which makes the elderly more susceptible to COVID-19. This deadly combination is a stark reminder, again, of doing our best to stay healthy.

Age and comorbidities
Graphic course: http://nautil.us/issue/84/outbreak/how-covid_19-picks-on-the-weakened. Aging and the Epidemiology of Multimorbidity

Reinfection

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Disease Severity


Vulnerable Populations

Vulnerable Populations
Graphic source: https://www.webmd.com/lung/news/20200602/vulnerable-groups-weigh-risks-as-country-reopens

Mild or Moderate Covid-19
Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp2009249

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Disease Statistics


Epidemic Curve of the Confirmed Cases of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
Chinese CDC Report 2/24/2020 JAMA
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762130

US cases
Graphic source: statista.com/chart/21547/cumulative-covid-19-cases-in-the-us/

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Hospitalization Statistics


Hospitalizations by Race/Ethnicity
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/reports/GAO-21-191/#Highlights

Hospital Readmissions
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6945e2.htm

Covid race/ethnicity data

Hospitalizations, underlying conditions
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6924e2.htm

Hospitalizations by Age
Graphic source: https://time.com/5867751/bars-covid/

Medicare hospitalizations by race
Graphic source: https://www.kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/slide/in-medicare-black-and-hispanic-individuals-account-for-disproportionate-share-of-covid-19-cases-and-hospitalizations/

COVID-19 admissions by race and ethnicity
Graphic source: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/931633

Age and Hospitalizations
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/older-adults.html

US COVID-19 hospitalizations
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6925e1.htm

Hospitalization and comorbidity
Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/22018/coronavirus-pre-existing-conditions/

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Potential Life Lost

PYLL
Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid-19-pandemic-related-excess-mortality-and-potential-years-of-life-lost-in-the-u-s-and-peer-countries/

PYLL-Disparities
Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid-19-pandemic-related-excess-mortality-and-potential-years-of-life-lost-in-the-u-s-and-peer-countries/

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Prevalence Statistics


Daily new confirmed COVID-19 cases per million people, Dec 9, 2020 The number of confirmed cases is lower than the number of actual cases; the main reason for that is limited testing.

New cases per 1 million
Graphic source: https://ourworldindata.org/coronavirus-data-explorer?tab=map&zoomToSelection=true&country=GBR~USA~ESP~ITA~BRA~IND~KOR®ion=World&casesMetric=true&interval=daily&hideControls=true&perCapita=true&smoothing=0&pickerMetric=location&pickerSort=asc

Model-based estimates of U.S. prevalence (A) and number (B) of adults aged ≥18 years with any selected underlying medical condition, by county United States, 2018

County Prevalence
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6929a1.htm

Point prevalence COVID-19
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6929e1.htm

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Death Statistics


JAMA leading causes of death
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2778234

MMWR 4/2021
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7014e1.htm

2020 deaths
Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/coronavirus-leading-through-the-crisis/charting-the-path-to-the-next-normal/in-2020-covid-19-deaths-were-eight-times-greater-than-a-typical-flu-season

U.S. on Sunday, February 21, 2021, hit the half-a-million mark for the number of lives claimed by Covid-19. Every dot on our 500,000 lives lost map represents a person who has died from the virus in the U.S., beginning with the first reported death on Feb. 29, 2020. @NBCNews

Feb 2021, 1/2 million dead
Graphic source: Washington Post Coronavirus Update

Death by Race, Ethnicity
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/reports/GAO-21-191/#Highlights

Covid deaths, race/ethnicity, agegroups
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/reports/GAO-21-191/#Highlights

Excess deaths
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2771761

Excess Deaths
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/reports/GAO-20-708/

COVID-10 3rd leading cause of death
Graphic source: https://twitter.com/bettycjung/status/1286716769441320960

COVID-19 deaths, including probable deaths
Graphic source: https://www.axios.com/axios-ipsos-coronavirus-week-8-5a1947d5-9850-4e58-9583-9b617e6fdc1b.html

Rapid Mortality Surveillance
Graphic source: https://www.theigc.org/blog/why-we-dont-know-the-real-number-of-covid-19-deaths-in-africa/

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Statistics Issues


COVID-19 Test Reporting

COVID-19 Vaccination Reporting

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Data Reporting

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Death Statistics

Hospitalization Data

Incomplete/Missing Demographics and Variables

Poor quality COVID-19 child data
Graphic source: https://www.covkidproject.org/state-report-card

Manipulation of Data Reporting

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Prevalence Data

Probable Cases/Excess Deaths

Excess Deaths and racial disparities
Graphic source: https://www.kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/slide/during-pandemic-higher-premature-excess-deaths-in-u-s-compared-to-peer-countries-partly-driven-by-racial-disparities/

Excess Mortality
Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid-19-pandemic-related-excess-mortality-and-potential-years-of-life-lost-in-the-u-s-and-peer-countries/

Excess Mortality
Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid-19-pandemic-related-excess-mortality-and-potential-years-of-life-lost-in-the-u-s-and-peer-countries/

Excess Mortality
Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid-19-pandemic-related-excess-mortality-and-potential-years-of-life-lost-in-the-u-s-and-peer-countries/

JAMA Excess Deaths
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2778361

Excess Death Charts
Graphic source: https://www.economist.com/graphic-detail/2020/07/15/tracking-covid-19-excess-deaths-across-countries

Undercounting

Africa undercounting Graphic source: https://www.bmj.com/content/372/bmj.n334

Actual New Cases
Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2021/02/06/964527835/why-the-pandemic-is-10-times-worse-than-you-think

Actively infectious
Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2021/02/06/964527835/why-the-pandemic-is-10-times-worse-than-you-think

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COVID-19 Risk Factors


COVID Comorbidities
Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/2020-year-in-review/a-tale-of-2020-in-20-mckinsey-charts

COVID Mortality Predictors
Graphic source: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/941521

Risk factors
Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/22365/prevalence-of-underlying-conditions-in-us-adults/

Know your risks
Graphic source: Texas Medical Association

Age COVID risk factor
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/older-adults.html

Risk factors
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/people-with-medical-conditions.html

Possible Risk factors
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/people-with-medical-conditions.html

High Risk Factors
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/downloads/COVID19-What-You-Can-Do-High-Risk.pdf

Risk Factors
Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp2009249

Cardiovascular

Cancer

Demographics

Race and burden
Graphic source: https://www.cnn.com/2020/08/20/us/systemic-racism-coronavirus-pandemic-trnd/index.html"

Deaths by Race, per 100,000
Graphic source: https://www.apmresearchlab.org/covid/deaths-by-race

Deaths by race
Graphic source: https://www.apmresearchlab.org/covid/deaths-by-race

Diabetes

COVID-19 and Diabetes
Graphic source: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00125-021-05458-8

Drugs

Genetic Mutations

Hypertension

Maternal/Child Health Issues

Mental Illness

Nutrition

Obesity

risk factors - obesity, hypertension, diabetes
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2770542

Obesity risk factors
Graphic source: https://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(20)30477-8/fulltext

Clinical manifestations and mechanisms for COVID‐19 risk in individuals with obesity

Obesity and COVID-19
Graphic source: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/obr.13128

Tobacco/Vaping

Covid and Tobacco
Graphic source: https://www.who.int/news-room/spotlight/more-than-100-reasons-to-quit-tobacco

"Experts have warned that the coronavirus — a respiratory pathogen — most likely capitalizes on the scarred lungs of smokers and vapers. Doctors and researchers are now starting to pinpoint the ways in which smoking and vaping seem to enhance the virus’s ability to spread from person to person, infiltrate the lungs and spark some of Covid-19’s worst symptoms." https://www.nytimes.com/2020/09/04/health/covid-vaping-smoking.html

Other Factors

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COVID-19 Incubation Period


Nature: Estimated that the incubation period for COVID-19 before the onset of symptoms was 5.2 days. Viral loads for COVID-19 were highest shortly after the onset of symptoms and then gradually decreased toward the detection limit by day 21. Sex, age, and disease severity did not substantially affect these findings.

The authors estimated that infectiousness of COVID-19 began 2.3 days before the onset of symptoms and peaked at 0.7 days after symptom onset. They further estimated that up to 44% of cases of COVID-19 could be a result of viral transmission before the onset of symptoms. Source: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/932932 (6/2020)

Incubation Period
Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp2009575

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COVID-19 Symptoms


Symptom-based COVID types
Graphic source: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-types/symptom-tracker-app-reveals-six-distinct-types-of-covid-19-infection-idUSKCN24I1YI

Hispanic and non-Hispanic COVID-19 symptoms
Graphic source; https://salud-america.org/coronavirus-case-rates-and-death-rates-for-latinos-in-the-united-states/

Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of previous or current SARS-CoV-2 infection, by individual symptoms among service members reporting at least one symptom (n = 284) — USS Theodore Roosevelt, April 2020 (June 2020)

Navy symptoms
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6923e4.htm

CDC Signs and symptoms
Graphic source: https://int.nyt.com/data/documenthelper/6926-mayhhsbriefing/af7319f4a55fd0ce5dc9/optimized/full.pdf#page=1

Updated CDC COVID-19 symptom list (4/27/2020)

CDC COVID-19 symptom list April 27, 2020
Graphic source: https://heavy.com/news/2020/04/early-symptoms-coronavirus-covid-19/

Symptoms

General

Dermatological Manifestations

Hearing Loss

Loss of Smell

Loss of Smell
Graphic source: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00210#

Psychiatric Symptoms

Tooth Loss

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COVID-19 Transmission


Transmission Routes


Transmission Chains
Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-1092-0/figures/2

SARS-CoV-2 introductions to U.S. and Europe. Credit: Modified from Worobey M, Science, 2020.

Transmission Routes
Graphic source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32912998/

Transmission by stage of infection
Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp2009249

Current Sites of COVID-19 cases

COVID-19 cases
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2767010

Potential Sites for future COVID-19 cases

COVID-19 potential second wave cases
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2767010


Reproduction Number


"To determine when an outbreak had been contained, scientists look at case counts and determine the reproduction number, a measurement that shows how many people will be infected by one infectious person. If the reproduction number drops below 1, scientists consider the outbreak contained." (Source: https://news.utexas.edu/2020/06/01/for-each-days-delay-in-social-distancing-a-covid-19-outbreak-lasts-days-longer/)

COVID infectiousness
Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/risk/our-insights/covid-19-implications-for-business

R-naught - the theory R-naught - the reality of superspreaders
R naught Superspreaders

Source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/22/well/live/coronavirus-pandemic-memorial-day-picnics-bbqs.html


Graphic source: https://www.cnn.com/2020/10/06/health/flu-covid-19-deaths-comparison-trnd/index.html

College superspreader event
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6926e1.htm

superspreader Ro
Graphic source: https://www.zdnet.com/article/google-researchers-show-how-covid-19-super-spreaders-are-a-big-part-of-the-problem/">

Reich and colleagues show that even for the same "R," transmission rate, on average, infections can rise faster with a higher "gamma," the measure of how many "degrees" of contacts a person in the society has -- the super-spreaders.

Reproduction Number
Graphic source: https://cosmosmagazine.com/biology/measuring-different-responses-to-covid-19

Disease Contagiousness
Graphic source; https://www.vox.com/2020/1/28/21079946/coronavirus-china-wuhan-deaths-pandemic

R effective
Graphic source: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2020/05/coronavirus-how-to-measure-your-nation-response-cvd/"

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Asymptomatic/Pre-symptomatic (Silent Spreader/Stealth) Transmission


Germany Asymptomatic Transmission
Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc2001468

Asymptomatic transmission
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6923e4.htm

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Superspreader Events (SSEs)


High Mixers
Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/coronavirus-leading-through-the-crisis/charting-the-path-to-the-next-normal/people-who-see-people-how-high-mixers-help-spread-covid-19

US superspreader events
Graphic source: https://public.tableau.com/profile/betsy.ladyzhets#!/vizhome/superspreadingevents/DashSuperspreadingeventsmap

Covid-19 superspreader - Motorcycle Rally
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6947e1.htm

Distribution of COVID-19 cases (N = 177) linked to a rural wedding reception, by date of onset or test - Maine, August 7–September 14, 2020

Maine Wedding Epi Map
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6945a5.htm

Maine Wedding
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6945a5.htm

Superspreaders
Graphic source: https://news.mit.edu/2020/super-spreading-covid-transmission-1102

Hockey game superspreader
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6941a4.htm

Transmission chains and attack rates in three COVID-19 child care facility outbreaks, Salt Lake County, Utah, April 1-July 10, 2020

Childcare superspreader
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6937e3.htm

Airborne Transmission
Graphic source: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8094933/How-one-man-spread-coronavirus-NINE-people-bus.html

China Restaurant
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/20/health/airflow-coronavirus-restaurants.html

Chinese Restaurant transmission

Funeral community transmission
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6915e1.htm

Funeral community transmission

CDC - Korean Call Center - Blue = infected with COVID-19

CDC-Korean Caller Center
Graphic source: https://www.vox.com/21262268/coronavirus-tips-covid-social-distancing-harm-reduction

Church spread
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6920e2.htm

Austria superspreader
Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/21699/coronavirus-outbreak-in-ischgl/"

Korea superspreader
Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/21697/contact-tracing-response-seoul-south-korea-covid-19/

Superspreaders
Graphic source: https://www.zdnet.com/article/google-researchers-show-how-covid-19-super-spreaders-are-a-big-part-of-the-problem/

Reich and colleagues construct graphs of people in their various states of infection and the like among people, to simulate how COVID-19 spreads. Caption from the article: "Contact tracing. Some share of the neighbors of a node which tests positive are traced and tested themselves." Reich et al. 2020

Superspreaders
Graphic source: https://cosmosmagazine.com/biology/how-social-distancing-flattens-the-curve-of-coronavirus

This graph shows how an epidemic might spread across a network over time. Blue dots are susceptible individuals, while red dots are infected people. Two dots are connected by a line if they are in contact with each other, and the more contacts a person has, the bigger their dot is on the network. Author provided

Infected people are red nodes, and susceptible people are blue. The large node in the middle of the diagram is a super-spreader, a person who connects with many others, and thus has more potential to spread the disease.

Documented Spreader Events
Graphic source: https://quillette.com/2020/04/23/covid-19-superspreader-events-in-28-countries-critical-patterns-and-lessons/

Timeline of events and symptom onsets, by day of investigation, in a cluster of COVID-19 likely transmitted at two family gatherings - Chicago, Illinois, February-March 2020


Video source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/14/us/coronavirus-updates.html
The farther the better

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Transmission Factors


Transmission Factors
Graphic source: https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid/ciaa1442/5910315

Viral Load Dynamics
Graphic source: https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid/ciaa1442/5910315

COVID-19 seasonality
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2767010

infectious disease transmission
Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-0869-5

a, Schematic of the relation between different time periods in the transmission of infectious disease. b, Human-to-human transmission pairs of SAR-CoV-2 virus (N=77). We assumed a maximum exposure window of 21 days prior to symptom onset of the secondary cases. Detailed information on the transmission pairs and the source of information is summarized in Supplementary Tables 2 and 3. c, Estimated serial interval distribution (top), inferred infectiousness profile (middle) and assumed incubation period (bottom) of COVID-19.

Viral shedding
Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-0869-5

Viral load (threshold cycle (Ct) values) detected by RT–PCR (PCR with reverse transcription) in throat swabs from patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 (N=94), overall and stratified by disease severity, sex, age group and link to Hubei province. The detection limit was Ct = 40, which was used to indicate negative samples. The thick lines show the trend in viral load, using smoothing splines. We added some noise to the data points to avoid overlaps.

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Air (Airborne)Transmission


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Hand Dryer Concerns


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Fecal-Oral Transmission


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Fomite (Contact) Transmission


COVID on surfaces
Graphic source: https://twitter.com/WebMD/status/1249276076146282496

Fomite
Graphic source: https://www.newyorker.com/science/elements/from-bats-to-human-lungs-the-evolution-of-a-coronavirus

According to researchers at Rocky Mountain Laboratories, some viral particles remain viable up to four hours on copper, twenty-four hours on cardboard, and seventy-two hours on plastic and stainless steel, though the number of viable particles begins to decrease within minutes.


Household Transmission


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Person to Person (Droplet/Respiratory; Saliva) Transmission


Saliva chart
Graphic source: https://cosmosmagazine.com/physics/when-you-cough-how-far-can-it-go

Droplet Spread
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-20-545SP

Subway spread
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-20-545SP

Determining the necessary spacing for effective social distancing, such as for riders in a subway car, can affect the extent of disease transmission. The shaded circle (top) shows the number of people who could be directly infected by droplets from a sick person.

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Sexual Transmission (Being investigated)



Vertical Transmission



Other Forms of Reported Transmission


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COVID-19 Testing


Collection and Analysis of Testing Data


Data Sources

Data Analysis

Mitigation vs. Suppression
Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2020/06/30/883703403/as-coronavirus-surges-how-much-testing-does-your-state-need-to-subdue-the-virus


Adequacy of Testing


"The rate of positivity is an important indicator because it can provide insights into whether a community is conducting enough testing to find cases. If a community’s positivity is high, it suggests that that community may largely be testing the sickest patients and possibly missing milder or asymptomatic cases. A lower positivity may indicate that a community is including in its testing patients with milder or no symptoms. The WHO has said that in countries that have conducted extensive testing for COVID-19, would remain at 5% or lower for at least 14 days." (Source: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/testing/individual-states)

Adequacy of Testing
Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2020/06/30/883703403/as-coronavirus-surges-how-much-testing-does-your-state-need-to-subdue-the-virus


Testing Basics


Testing Basics
Graphic source: https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/coronavirus-disease-2019-testing-basics

Other Testing Options
Graphic source: https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/coronavirus-disease-2019-testing-basics


Types of Testing


Current Available Tests
Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Business%20Functions/Risk/Our%20Insights/COVID%2019%20Implications%20for%20business/COVID%2019%20May%2027/COVID-19-Facts-and-Insights-June-1-vF.ashx

Covid Test types
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-20-584SP


Testing Strategy



Timing of Testing


Risk-based Testing
Updated 5/11/2020 by Betty C. Jung. Posted on Twitter

Risk-based Testing
Created 3/20/2020 by Betty C. Jung. Posted on Twitter

FDA Testing Priority
Graphic source: https://twitter.com/FDAHealthEquity/status/1245036877515759619

Testing intepretation
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2765837


Antigen Testing


Antigen Testing
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/resources/antigen-tests-guidelines.html .

<{?

Molecular (CRISPR/Nucleic Acid/PCR) Testing



Serologic (Antigen/Antibody) Testing



Testing Integrity


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Immunity


Herd Immunity
Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/coronavirus-leading-through-the-crisis/charting-the-path-to-the-next-normal/seven-keys-to-herd-immunity

Antibody Response
Graphic source: https://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/rapid-review-immunity-after-covid.pdf

Antibody Kinetics
Graphic source: https://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/rapid-review-immunity-after-covid.pdf

To Achieve herd immunity
Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/risk/our-insights/covid-19-implications-for-business?cid=other-eml-ttn-mip-mck

Herd immunity - various diseases Herd Immunity
Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/healthcare-systems-and-services/our-insights/when-will-the-covid-19-pandemic-end

Low Vaccine Efficacy
Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/healthcare-systems-and-services/our-insights/when-will-the-covid-19-pandemic-end

Infection Timeline
Graphic source: https://scimoms.com/how-does-covid-spread/

Immune Response
Graphic source: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/risk-comms-updates/update-28-covid-19-what-we-know-may-2020.pdf

Infectivity
Graphic source: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanres/article/PIIS2213-2600(20)30230-7/fulltext

Potential Herd Immunity
Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/coronavirus-leading-through-the-crisis/charting-the-path-to-the-next-normal/us-most-likely-to-reach-covid-19-herd-immunity-in-second-half-of-2021

Adaptive Immunity
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2770758

naive vs. immune
Graphic source; https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2020/8/24/21399041/covid-19-reinfection-hong-kong-case-immunity

Herd and No Herd Immunity
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/assets/710/707975.pdf

Herd Immunity for several diseases
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/assets/710/707975.pdf

Herd Immunity and COVID-19
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/05/28/upshot/coronavirus-herd-immunity.html

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Vaccination Data & Reporting



Vaccine Guidance


Full vaccination - safer activities
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/fully-vaccinated-guidance.html

Fully vaccinated perks
Graphic source: CDC

Fully vaccinated visitations
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/fully-vaccinated-guidance.html

Mammo lymph nodes, vaccines
Graphic source: https://www.ajronline.org/doi/pdf/10.2214/AJR.21.25688


Vaccine Development


2 doses
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7018e1.htm

Vaccine Effectiveness
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7013e3.htm

Vaccines
Graphic source: https://publichealthcollaborative.org/resources/graphic-about-the-3-covid-19-vaccines/

Vaccine Comparison
Graphic source: https://www.medpagetoday.com/special-reports/exclusives/91489

Vaccine comparison
Graphic source: VOX

Vaccine myths debunked
Graphic source: https://health.clevelandclinic.org/8-common-covid-19-vaccine-myths-explained/

MRNA vaccine works
Graphic source: https://www.sciencealert.com/here-are-9-ways-to-discuss-the-coronavirus-vaccine-with-someone-hesitant-to-get-it

GAO Traditional vaccine development
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-20-701

Getting the vaccine
Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/22515/share-of-us-adults-willing-to-get-a-covid-19-vaccine/

Vaccine Development
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/infographics/journey-of-child-vaccine.html

Vaccine Development
Graphic source: https://www.gatesnotes.com/Health/What-you-need-to-know-about-the-COVID-19-vaccine

Vaccine Development
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-20-583SP

Vaccine mechanisms
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-20-583SP

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Vaccine Passports



Breakthrough Infections



Vaccine-induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia

Vaccine Reactions


Assessing Vaccine Reactions
Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra2035343


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COVID-19 Testing Issues


April 8, 2020 testing status
Graphic source: https://twitter.com/BillKarins/status/1247848309114523648/photo/1

COVID-19 Testing by Country
Graphic source: https://nationalpostcom.files.wordpress.com/2020/04/na0407-covid-19-testing-by-country.png

Inadequate Testing/Testing Capacity

Laboratory Reporting

Missed Testing

Test Quality

Test Strategy

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General Prevention Measures


Rule of thumb: If you can't remember the names of the people you spent time with in the past 5 days, at close distance (<6 feet), for more than 15 minutes, without wearing a mask, you have probably placed yourself at risk of contracting coronavirus.(Betty C. Jung) https://twitter.com/bettycjung/status/1276687102332358658

Prevent The Spread: Remember the Three Cs @YouTube

Remediation measures
Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/risk/our-insights/covid-19-implications-for-business

Travel delay
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/when-to-delay-travel.html

3 Ws
Graphic source: https://twitter.com/Surgeon_General/status/1297508127424872450

Protect yourself
Graphic source: https://www.webmd.com/lung/coronavirus-transmission-overview

Prevention measures
Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/21882/chance-of-covid-19-transmission/

VOX risk chart
Graphic source: https://www.vox.com/2020/5/22/21266756/coronavirus-pandemic-covid-risks-social-distancing-chart

Home with COVID

wider health effects of lockdown
Graphic source: https://www.bmj.com/content/369/8243

March 2020
Graphic source: https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2020/3/26/21192211/coronavirus-covid-19-social-distancing-end

New normal
Graphic source: https://content-design.statista.com/the-new-normal/

When to call 911
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/if-you-are-sick/steps-when-sick.html

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Consumer Information



Behavioral Interventions


Mar 4 2021 restrictions
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/03/04/world/covid-19-coronavirus

New Normal Protocol


Caregiving



Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2769613


Disinfection


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Face Masks, Face Shields & Respiratory Protection


Importantly, uncovered emulated coughs were able to travel noticeably farther than the currently recommended 6-foot distancing guideline. Without a mask, droplets traveled more than 8 feet; with a bandana, they traveled 3 feet, 7 inches; with a folded cotton handkerchief, they traveled 1 foot, 3 inches; with the stitched quilting cotton mask, they traveled 2.5 inches; and with the cone-style mask, droplets traveled about 8 inches.

When the mannequin was not fitted with a mask, they projected droplets much farther than the 6-foot distancing guidelines currently recommended by the CDC. The researchers observed droplets traveling up to 12 feet within approximately 50 seconds. Moreover, the tracer droplets remained suspended midair for up to three minutes in the quiescent environment. These observations, in combination with other recent studies, suggest that current social-distancing guidelines may need to be updated to account for aerosol-based transmission of pathogens. (Source: https://www.fau.edu/newsdesk/articles/efficacy-facemasks-coronavirus.php)

Mask Mandates
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7010e3.htm

Double-masking
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7007e1.htm

face masks and MRI
Graphic source: https://www.fda.gov/medical-devices/safety-communications/wear-face-masks-no-metal-during-mri-exams-fda-safety-communication

Face masks don't work
Graphic source: https://www.livescience.com/face-shield-visualization-covid-19-spread.html

US wearing masks
Graphic source: https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/08/27/more-americans-say-they-are-regularly-wearing-masks-in-stores-and-other-businesses/

US wearing masks
Graphic source: https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/08/27/more-americans-say-they-are-regularly-wearing-masks-in-stores-and-other-businesses/

Mask and Wildfire smoke

Droplet count
Graphic source: https://www.physiciansweekly.com/?post_type=post&p=195055

Relative droplet count
Graphic source: https://www.physiciansweekly.com/?post_type=post&p=195055

Nature surgical mask efficacy
Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-0843-2

When to mask

Thorax 3 types of masks
Graphic source: https://thorax.bmj.com/content/early/2020/07/24/thoraxjnl-2020-215748

Face Mask users
Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/22300/face-mask-usage-by-demographic/

HCP died of covid

Queen masks

Masks on everyone
Graphic source: WebMD

Thai babies with face masks
Graphic source: https://time.com/5819527/babies-face-masks-thailand/

hate wearing a mask

Masked cat

Pants and masks

Masked bunnies

Respiratory protection
Graphic source: https://www.bmj.com/content/350/bmj.h694/infographic

Face Mask States
Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/21687/share-of-the-public-who-have-worn-a-face-mask-in-public/

wearing a mask

CDC face coverings

Effective masks
Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/21322/purpose-and-protective-effect-of-selected-face-masks/

Face masks
Graphic source: https://twitter.com/WebMD/status/1253904079224541184

Do Don't Medical Masks

Medical Masks

Mask Exceptions

Back to Table of Contents


Handwashing


MMWR who washes their hands
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6940a2.htm

When to wash hands
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/handwashing/when-how-handwashing.html

WHO wash your hands


Influenza, Allergies or COVID-19


Seasonal allergies or COVID-19
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/infographic-overlap-symptoms.html

COVID-19 or Allergies
Graphic source: https://twitter.com/CDCemergency/status/1377974108781174788

COVID-19 or Flu
Graphic source: CDC

Flu vs. COVID
Graphic source: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/941509


Mental Health and Wellness


Pandemic Fatigue
Graphic source: https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/the-squeaky-wheel/202008/10-signs-you-have-pandemic-fatigue-and-how-cope

Stressmanagement
Graphic source: https://www.medicalcenter.virginia.edu/population-health/counselors-corner/covid-19-mental-health-stress-management-resources

Depression
Graphic source: https://time.com/5886228/depression-covid-19-pandemic/

Relative Importance, a Facebook posting

COVID and mental health
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6932a1.htm

Make a difference
Graphic source: https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/how-you-can-make-difference-during-coronavirus-pandemic

Model from Jean

Loneliness

Mental Wellness

Back to Table of Contents


Nutrition and Food Safety



Sanitizers


Sanitizer poisonings
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6932e1.htm


Self-care


Outside Activity Risks
Graphic source: https://www.ipsos.com/en-us/news-polls/axios-ipsos-coronavirus-index

Back to Table of Contents


Sexual Relationships


COVID and safe sex
Graphic source: @OHAOregon


Sheltering in Place/Lockdowns/Quarantine


COVID lifestyle
Graphic source: https://www.marketingcharts.com/digital/video-114571

Activity during lockdown
Graphic source: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/06/200617194510.htm

Self-care
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/downloads/10Things.pdf


Social Distancing


Celebration Risks
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/large-events/considerations-for-events-gatherings.html

Social Distancing
Graphic source: https://www.bmj.com/content/370/bmj.m3223

beach tips
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/parks-rec/public-beaches.html

social activities
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/personal-social-activities.html

Owl social distancing


Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/large-events/considerations-for-events-gatherings.html

Social Distancing
Graphic: Medpage

Earlier Controls
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/20/us/coronavirus-distancing-deaths.html


Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/20/us/coronavirus-distancing-deaths.html

Social distancing
Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/21198/effect-of-social-distancing-signer-lab/


Sports and Athletics


NFL mitigation
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7004e2.htm

High Prevalence of Pericardial Involvement in College Student-Athletes Recovering From COVID-19 (11/2020)

Athletes pericarditis
Graphic source:

https://www.jacc.org/doi/10.1016/j.jcmg.2020.10.023

Social distance while exercising: 4-5 meters (13-16 feet) if walking, 10 meters (32 feet) if running and 20 meters (65 feet) if cycling. Source: https://www.acc.org/latest-in-cardiology/articles/2020/05/13/12/53/exercise-and-athletics-in-the-covid-19-pandemic-era

COVID-19 Return-to-Play Algorithm for Competitive Athlete and Highly Active People. COVID-19 indicates coronavirus disease 2019; hsTn, high-sensitivity troponin I; RTP, return to play.

Sports recommendations
Graphic source: https://www.acc.org/latest-in-cardiology/articles/2020/05/13/12/53/exercise-and-athletics-in-the-covid-19-pandemic-era


Substance Use


Back to Table of Contents


Travel


Travel
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/travel-during-covid19.html

Before Travel
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/travel-during-covid19.html

After Travel
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/travel-during-covid19.html

Travel Tips
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/travel-in-the-us.html

Back to Table of Contents


Public Health Management & Guidance


Community guidance
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6949e2.htm

Community Mitigation

Flatten the Curve
Graphic source; Information is Beautiful

Clinical Disaster Planning Framework
Graphic source: https://emergency.cdc.gov/coca/ppt/2020/Final_COCA_Call_Slides_04_17_2020.pdf

flowchart
Graphic source: Initial Flowchart to Identify and Assess 2019 Novel Coronavirus (Historical) (https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/identify-assess-flowchart.htm Historical


Agriculture Workers and Employers



Airline Travel; In-flight transmission


MMWR in-flight transmission
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7016e1.htm

MMWR in-flight transmission
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7016e1.htm

MMWR in-flight transmission
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7016e1.htm

In-flight Transmission: Dubai to New Zealand

Dubai-NZ transmission
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/2021/01/07/health/coronavirus-airline-passengers-outbreak.html

Phylogenetic tree of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viruses isolated from passengers and airline crew members who traveled on the same flight from Boston, Massachusetts, USA, to Hong Kong, China. Human SARS-CoV-2 WIV04 is selected to be the root of this phylogenetic tree.

Boston to Hong Kong
Graphic source: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/11/20-3254-f1

Transmission of SARS-CoV 2 During Long-Haul Flight: Seating location of passengers on Vietnam Airlines flight 54 from London, UK, to Hanoi, Vietnam, on March 2, 2020, for whom severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection was later confirmed.

Vietnam to London
Graphic source: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/11/20-3299-f1

SARS-CoV 2 transmission: Australia to New Zealand

Switzerland to New Zealand
Graphic source: https://twitter.com/bettycjung/status/1334132700299583489

Percent of contacts by seating position across all flights. Note the declining number of contacts to the right as distance from the aisle increases.

Contact and seat location on plane
Graphic source: https://www.pnas.org/content/115/14/3623

Schematic Diagram of the Boeing 737-300 Aircraft on Flight 2 from Hong Kong to Beijing (2003 SARS)

Boeing HK to Beijing exposure
Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa031349

Frequency of Transmission on Three Aircraft Carrying One or More Persons Given a Diagnosis of a Probable Case of SARS.

3 flights SARS exposure
Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa031349


Bars/Coffee Shops/Restaurants


Adjusted odds ratio (aOR)* and 95% confidence intervals for community exposures† associated with confirmed COVID-19 among symptomatic adults aged ≥18 years (N = 314) - United States, July 1-29, 2020

Restaurant Transmission
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6936a5.htm

Bar visits and Positive COVID tests
Graphic source: https://time.com/5867751/bars-covid/


Community Mitigation


Confirmed COVID-19 cases, associated hospitalizations, and deaths reported to Delaware Division of Public Health, by week, and COVID-19 mitigation efforts -Delaware Department of Health and Social Services, March 9-June 15, 2020 (MMWR)

Delaware Mitigation
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6945e1.htm

Community Mitigation
Graphic source: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/927860


Concert Venues


Back to Table of Contents


Congregate Facilities


childcare outbreaks
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6937e3.htm

Back to Table of Contents


Correctional and Detention Facilities


Brief Exposures
Graphic source: https://earthsky.org/human-world/epidemiologist-explains-cdc-guidance-15-minutes-covid19-exposure

US prison COVID cases
Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/21895/covid-in-prison-system/

Prisoncases
Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/22029/number-of-covid-19-cases-in-the-following-locations/

US prisons
Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/21895/covid-in-prison-system/

COVID-19 in Prisons
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6919e1.htm


Cruise Ships



Essential Workers



Fitness Industry


Gym exposure
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7009e2.htm

Back to Table of Contents


Health Care Facilities: Long-term Care, Outpatient & Skilled Nursing Facilities Guidance


Nursing Home Deaths
Graphic source: AHCA/NCAL

Long term facilities-Cases
Graphic source: https://www.kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/issue-brief/patterns-in-covid-19-cases-and-deaths-in-long-term-care-facilities-in-2020/ M

Long term facilities - Deaths
Graphic source: https://www.kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/issue-brief/patterns-in-covid-19-cases-and-deaths-in-long-term-care-facilities-in-2020/ M

Long-term facilities cases and deaths vs. Overall COVID cases and deaths
Graphic source: https://www.kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/issue-brief/patterns-in-covid-19-cases-and-deaths-in-long-term-care-facilities-in-2020/ M

Weekly Confirmed COVID-19 Cases and Deaths among U.S. Nursing Home Residents and Staff, as Reported by Medicare- and Medicaid-Certified Nursing Homes, Weeks Ending May 31, 2020 through October 4, 2020

Nursing Homes
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/reports/GAO-21-191/#Highlights

Nursing home cases rising
Graphic source: https://www.ahcancal.org/News/news_releases/Pages/DATA-Nursing-Homes-See-Spike-in-New-COVID-Cases-Due-to-Community-Spread.aspx

community spread causes rise in nursing home cases
Graphic source: https://www.ahcancal.org/News/news_releases/Pages/DATA-Nursing-Homes-See-Spike-in-New-COVID-Cases-Due-to-Community-Spread.aspx

Nursing home deaths
Graphic source: https://www.ahcancal.org/News/news_releases/Pages/DATA-Nursing-Homes-See-Spike-in-New-COVID-Cases-Due-to-Community-Spread.aspx

Rising nursing home cases
Graphic source: https://www.cnn.com/2020/08/14/health/nursing-home-rise-in-covid-wellness/index.html

Long-term Care Facilities Data
Graphic source: https://www.cms.gov/files/document/covid-nursing-home-reporting-numbers-5-31-20.pdf

Assisted Living Facilities Deaths
Graphic source: https://time.com/5843260/assisted-living-facilities-covid-19/


Manufacturing. Mining and Meat Processing Plant Guidance


Meat Processing Plant COVID-19
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6931a2.htm

Meat Processing infections
Graphic source: https://twitter.com/CDCgov/status/1280551663938555910


Mental Health Guidance



Personal Care Services


Wear a mask
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6928e2.htm

Back to Table of Contents


Schools & Colleges


Surveillance Testing in Colleges
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7014a5.htm

Covid risk
Graphic source: CDC

Wisconsin Schools
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7004e3.htm

COVID-19 for kids
Graphic source: https://www.medicalcenter.virginia.edu/population-health/counselors-corner/covid-19-mental-health-stress-management-resources

Colleges with COVID

COVID children spread

CT reopening school
Graphic source: https://patch.com/connecticut/across-ct/lamont-issues-new-guidelines-when-schools-should-open

Inperson schooling
Graphic source: https://apnews.com/b133f482b2eba88f8bd733e2d15d13ae

Reopening Schools
Graphic source: https://apnews.com/b133f482b2eba88f8bd733e2d15d13ae

reopening schools - who's at risk
Graphic source: https://www.kff.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/WEB-Who-is-at-Risk-of-Coronavirus-Teachers-Seniors_1-2.png

Reopening Schools
Graphic source: https://www.nationalacademies.org/news/2020/07/schools-should-prioritize-reopening-in-fall-2020-especially-for-grades-k-5-while-weighing-risks-and-benefits

Back to School Risks
Graphic source: https://www.ipsos.com/en-us/news-polls/axios-ipsos-coronavirus-index

CDC and Other Guidance for Reopening Schools

General Info


Transportation



Ventilation/Air Conditioning


Ventilation
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/Improving-Ventilation-Home.html

Air Purification
Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/advanced-electronics/our-insights/can-hvac-systems-help-prevent-transmission-of-covid-19

Air Filters
Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/advanced-electronics/our-insights/can-hvac-systems-help-prevent-transmission-of-covid-19

AC transmission
Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/advanced-electronics/our-insights/can-hvac-systems-help-prevent-transmission-of-covid-19

Airborne Spread
Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/advanced-electronics/our-insights/can-hvac-systems-help-prevent-transmission-of-covid-19


Youth-based Activities


Back to Table of Contents


Medical Management


Treatment Guidelines


JAMA guidelines
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2760782

COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines (4/21/2020)

Summary Recommendations
Graphic source: https://covid19treatmentguidelines.nih.gov/overview/

COVID19 Disease Progression
Graphic source: https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2020/4/8/21207269/covid-19-coronavirus-risk-factors

Back to Table of Contents


Medical Management - General Information


Caring for Critically Ill
Graphic source: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/928177

Remote Management
Graphic source; https://www.bmj.com/content/368/bmj.m1182

COVID-19 Primary Care
Graphic source: https://www.bmj.com/coronavirus

Ventilator Talking points
Graphic source: What You Should Know Before You Need a Ventilator https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/04/opinion/coronavirus-ventilators.html

COVID-19 therapeutics
Graphic source: https://emergency.cdc.gov/coca/ppt/2020/Final_COCA_Call_Slides_04_17_2020.pdf

Convalescent Plamsa
Graphic source: https://emergency.cdc.gov/coca/ppt/2020/Final_COCA_Call_Slides_04_17_2020.pdf

NYC nCoV management

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Health Services


ICU staffing
Graphic source: https://sccm.org/Blog/March-2020/United-States-Resource-Availability-for-COVID-19

Future of COVID-19 care
Graphic source: https://emergency.cdc.gov/coca/ppt/2020/Final_COCA_Call_Slides_04_17_2020.pdf

Back to Table of Contents


Healthcare Provider Protection


NYC DOH
Graphic source: https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/doh/downloads/pdf/imm/covid-19-providers-dear-colleague-updates.pdf

PPE
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/downloads/A_FS_HCP_COVID19_PPE.pdf

N95 vs KN95 masks
Graphic source: https://smartairfilters.com/en/blog/whats-the-difference-between-n95-and-kn95-masks/

Back to Table of Contents


General Medical Issues


JAMA transmission, symptoms, complications
Graphic source; https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2768391


Bioethics



Co-infections



COVID-19 in Children


Children with COVID
Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/22537/covid-among-american-children/


COVID-19 in Young Adults



COVID-19 in the Elderly


Delerium Interventions
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2777684


Anticoagulation & Hematological Issues


Anticoagulation tx
Graphic source: https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiol.2020201629


Auditory Issues



Autoimmune Disease Issues



Cardiovascular Issues


Heart Attacks and Covid
Graphic source: https://academic.oup.com/eurheartj/advance-article/doi/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa1067/6128749

COVID-19 damages the heart
Graphic source: https://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2020/09/23/science.abe2813

heart disease treatment with COVID-19
Graphic source: https://www.onlinejacc.org/content/accj/early/2020/07/01/j.jacc.2020.06.068.full.pdf


Dermatology Issues



Endocrine/Exocrine; Diabetes and Blood Sugar Issues



Drug Issues


Twelve-month provisional drug overdose death counts for all drugs, synthetic opioids, cocaine, and psychostimulants, for 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City: 12-months ending in June 2019 to 12-months ending in May 2020

rise in ODs with COVID-19
Graphic source: https://emergency.cdc.gov/han/2020/han00438.asp?ACSTrackingID=USCDC_1026-DM45245&ACSTrackingLabel=December%202020%20Drug%20Overdose%20Update

: Percentage change in 12-months ending provisional data on all fatal drug overdoses, 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City: Overdose deaths from 12-months ending in June 2019 to 12-months ending in May 2020

ODs and COVID-19
Map source: https://emergency.cdc.gov/han/2020/han00438.asp?ACSTrackingID=USCDC_1026-DM45245

Percentage change in 12-months ending provisional count of fatal overdoses involving synthetic opioids, 36 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City: Deaths from 12-months ending in June 2019 to 12-months ending in May 2020

Rise in ODs and COVID-19
Map source: https://emergency.cdc.gov/han/2020/han00438.asp?ACSTrackingID=USCDC_1026-DM45245


Endocrine System



Environmental Issues



Eye Issues



Gastrointestinal Issues



Immune System



Kidney Dialysis and Renal Issues


Pathophysiology of acute kidney injury in COVID-19 (ACE2 = angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; SARS-CoV-2 = severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2).

Acute Kidney Injury
Graphic source: https://www.ccjm.org/content/87/10/619

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Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Adults Associated with COVID-19 (MIS-A),



Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children Associated with COVID-19 (MIS-C), previously known as Pediatric Multi-System Inflammatory Syndrome (PMIS, or MIS-C)


MIS-C
Graphic source: https://www.cell.com/trends/microbiology/fulltext/S0966-842X(20)30265-1

MIS-C case Definition
Graphic source: https://emergency.cdc.gov/han/2020/han00432.asp


Neurological Issues



Olfactory System



Psychiatric Issues



Reproductive and Sexual Issues


COVID-19 and pregnancy
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6938e2.htm

COVID-19 and pregnancy
Graphic Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6925a1.htm

Back to Table of Contents


Respiratory and Lung Issues


Normal, Smokers and COVID lungs
Graphic source: https://www.cbsnews.com/news/covid-lungs-scarring-smokers-lungs/

Prone positioning
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2769872

Pseudostratified epithelium of the trachea showing goblet and ciliate cells.(prime target)

COVID target cells
Graphic source:https://www.zmescience.com/science/cells-vulnerable-to-covid-identified-26243/

Ventilation
Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp2009575

Back to Table of Contents


Sequelae [AKA Long-Hauler Syndrome; Post-acute covid-19; post-COVID syndrome, also known as Long COVID; Post-Acute Sequelae of Covid-19 {PASC}]


Acute and Long Covid symptoms
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2776560

Long Covid
Graphic source: https://www.bmj.com/content/370/bmj.m3026

Pain that lingers
Graphic source: https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/07/brain-fog-heart-damage-covid-19-s-lingering-problems-alarm-scientists

Sequelae
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6930e1.htm

Self-reported symptoms at the time of positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing results and unresolved symptoms 14-21 days later among outpatients (N = 274) - 14 academic health care systems, United States, March-June 2020

sequelae symptoms
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6930e1.htm

COVID-19 sequelae
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2768351


Stroke



Thyroid Issues


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Potential Treatments


COVID Treatments
Graphic source: Georgios D. Kitsios, CC BY-ND Treatments for COVID-19 and their timing. https://heavy.com/news/covid19-coronavirus-treatments/

Candidate Therapies
Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp2009575

Convalescent Plasma

Dexamethasone

Hydroxychloroquine

Il-7

Interferon

Interferon treatment
Graphic source: https://www.ccjm.org/content/early/2020/12/01/ccjm.87a.ccc066

Ivermectin

Llama Antibodies

Monoclonal Antibodies

Remdesivir

Remdesivir study
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2769871

Synthetic/Monoclonal Antibodies

Other

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Health Services Issues


COVID and chronic disease medical care
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6925e2.htm

COVID affect ER services
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6923e1.htm

COVID-10 AMI
Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc2015630

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https://tools.cdc.gov/medialibrary/index.aspx#/media/id/403627

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PUBLISHED ON THE WEB: March 30, 2020
Updated: 5/11/2021 R10,287
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