https://www.bettycjung.net/COVID-19.htm

COVID-19

Coronovirus
Graphic source: https://www.wowt.com/content/news/CDC-updates-on-coronavirus-workers-seek-to-prevent-outbreak-pandemic-568081961.html

COVID-19 AKA 2019 Novel Coronavirus; 2019-nCoV
Internet Resources

COVID-19 webpage QR Code

Scan and save this Webpage to your mobile device!

Betty C. Jung logo


A - L M - Z


Suggested Citation: Jung, B.C. (2020-2021). COVID-19 Internet Resources.
Web document: https://www.bettycjung.net/COVID-19.htm


Mission: To provide a one-stop Web resource page with factual information about the COVID-19 Pandemic

According to PEW , social media users share COVID-19 information mostly from news sources (74%) and very little from health and science resources (1%). This could mean that people do not know where to look for credible science-based information about COVID-19.

On June 18, 2020, JAMA reported "Coronavirus disease 2019-related knowledge and behaviors were associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. African American participants, men, and people younger than 55 years were less likely to know how the disease is spread, were less likely to know the symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019, and left the home more often."

Furthermore, the prevalence of Coronavirus myths addressed by the World Health Organization indicates that there is much disinformation and misinformation on the Internet about the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

Therefore, I have decided to create this resource page for those interested in learning more about the pandemic. It is my hope, as Master Certified Health Education Specialist (MCHES®), that you will be able get the credible information you need here to make the decisions you have to make to deal with the pandemic in your life. I am dedicated to keeping this page updated with vetted sources, and welcome your feedback. (July 6, 2020)


Comments,suggestions, dead link reports:


Table of Content (Major sections)


COVID-19 Pandemic


CDC has three numbers you should consider to know if you've been exposed to the coronavirus: If you've been within six feet of an infected person for at least 15 minutes starting from 48 hours before the infected person began feeling sick, you are considered to have been in close contact with the virus. (Source: https://bestlifeonline.com/exposed-to-coronavirus/)

A build-up of 21st century forces resulting in illness

COVID, 5 years in the making
Graphic source: https://www.bmj.com/content/373/bmj.n657

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Public Health Technical Reports


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Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Visualization Sites


United States

COVID and US deaths
Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid-19-is-the-number-one-cause-of-death-in-the-u-s-in-early-2021/


Video source: NBC News

Healthcare & Hospitalization

Vaccinations

Reopening Metrics
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/2021/05/15/upshot/epidemiologists-covid-return-normal.html

Connecticut

Other COVID-19 Trackers

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COVID-19 Research Information


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COVID-19 Databases, Registries, Repositories


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CDC & Other Federal Agency Guidance


CDC Guidance

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Public Health Issues


US had more cases in reopening
Graphic source; NY Times

July 8, 2020 Not Ready for Reopening
Graphic source; https://www.vox.com/2020/5/28/21270515/coronavirus-covid-reopen-economy-social-distancing-states-map-data

ICU capacity
Graphic source; https://www.vox.com/2020/5/28/21270515/coronavirus-covid-reopen-economy-social-distancing-states-map-data

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Epidemiology of COVID-19


Infectious Disease Models


Outbreak Models
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-20-582SP

COVID model
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-20-582SP


COVID-19 Virology


Virus concepts
Graphic source: https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/22586816/next-coronavirus-variant-delta-covid-19

Viral Taxonomy 1
Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-020-0709-x.pdf

Viral Taxonomy 2
Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-020-0709-x.pdf

Adding new viruses to taxonomies
Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-021-01749-7

Virus Realms
Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-021-01749-7

Covid realm
Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-021-01749-7

Virology COVID-19
Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-020-0695-z


COVID-19 Metrics


7-day average
Graphic source: https://www.propublica.org/article/how-to-understand-covid-19-numbers

5 percent positivity rate
Graphic source: https://www.propublica.org/article/how-to-understand-covid-19-numbers

Death rate
Graphic source: https://www.propublica.org/article/how-to-understand-covid-19-numbers

4 measures
Graphic source: https://www.propublica.org/article/how-to-understand-covid-19-numbers

COVID risk levels
Graphic source: https://globalepidemics.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/key_metrics_and_indicators_v4.pdf

COVID Risk level and type of control
Graphic source: https://globalepidemics.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/key_metrics_and_indicators_v4.pdf

Contact Tracing
Graphic source: https://globalepidemics.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/key_metrics_and_indicators_v4.pdf

Contact Tracing and Testing
Graphic source: https://globalepidemics.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/key_metrics_and_indicators_v4.pdf

Contact Tracing
Graphic source: https://globalepidemics.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/key_metrics_and_indicators_v4.pdf

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COVID-19 Dust Surveillance



COVID-19 Genomic Surveillance



COVID-19 Hotspot Surveillance


4th Surge US Hotspots, July 19, 2021
Graphic source: TIME

Viral Load Surveillance
Graphic source: https://directorsblog.nih.gov/2021/06/24/new-metric-identifies-coronavirus-hotspots-in-real-time/

Viral Load Surveillance
Graphic source: https://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2021/06/02/science.abh0635

Viral Load Surveillance
Graphic source: https://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2021/06/02/science.abh0635

Viral Load Surveillance
Graphic source: https://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2021/06/02/science.abh0635

Viral Load Surveillance
Graphic source: https://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2021/06/02/science.abh0635

March 9, 2021 Hotspots
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/world/coronavirus-maps.html

Hotspot Surveillance
Graphic source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877584520300320

Hotspot Surveillance Over Time
Graphic source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877584520300320


COVID-19 Wastewater Surveillance


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COVID-19 Outbreak


Delta variant transmission
Graphic source: https://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/covid-cases-deaths-rising-u-s-cdc-warns-pandemic-unvaccinated-n1274161

June 1, 2021 Hotspots
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/world/covid-cases.html

March 9, 2021 Per capital
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/world/coronavirus-maps.html

November 7, 2020
Graphic source: https://www.vox.com/2020/11/8/21550345/50-million-confirmed-cases-covid-19-worldwide

US Wave
Graphic source: https://www.vox.com/2020/11/8/21550345/50-million-confirmed-cases-covid-19-worldwide

Epidemic curve of daily cases of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Hong Kong by symptom onset date and colored by cluster category (n=1,038).
From: Clustering and superspreading potential of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Hong Kong

Hong Kong Cluster Outbreak
Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-1092-0/figures/1

US early spread
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6922e1.htm

Timeline Comparing the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreaks

SARS and COVID-19 Timeline
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762130

Comparison SARS and nCoV
Graphic Source: NY Times Graphic, via @FelicityCarus #MackayIM

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COVID-19 Outbreak Trends


July-August 2021 - Delta Variant Running Rampant in the U.S. July-August 2021
Graphic source: CNN

US trajectory
Graphic source: https://www.usatoday.com/in-depth/graphics/2020/03/10/us-coronavirus-map-tracking-united-states-outbreak/4945223002/

Covid shift over time
Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/03/30/822491838/coronavirus-world-map-tracking-the-spread-of-the-outbreak

One month - Delta variant, July 15, 2021
Map source: CDC

Video source: https://www.vox.com/future-perfect/21353986/coronavirus-covid-pandemic-usa-america-maps-charts-data

July 7, 2021 July 7, 2021
Graphic source: https://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/coronavirus-map-confirmed-cases-2020-n1120686

July 7, 201
July 7, 2021
Graphic source: https://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/coronavirus-map-confirmed-cases-2020-n1120686


Dec 31, 2020 outbreak trends
Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/03/30/822491838/coronavirus-world-map-tracking-the-spread-of-the-outbreak

Global Deaths
Graphic source: https://www.cnn.com/2020/09/28/health/coronavirus-million-global-deaths-intl/index.html

US COVID-19 changing demographics
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6939e1.htm

US COVID-19 changing demographics
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6939e1.htm

Covid September 2, 2020
Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/20651/locations-by-number-of-confirmed-wuhan-coronavirus-cases/

Country responses early on
Graphic source: https://www.brookings.edu/2020/04/02/the-early-days-of-a-global-pandemic-a-timeline-of-covid-19-spread-and-government-interventions/

COVID-19 history
Graphic source; https://twitter.com/bettycjung/status/1282357711703887872

American Nations
Graphic source: https://www.pressherald.com/2020/07/05/how-the-geography-of-the-pandemic-is-determined-by-centuries-old-regional-differences/

US COVID-19 trends
Graphic source: https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2020/06/18/trump-claims-coronavirus-pandemic-is-ending-data-experts-disagree/

Disease progression
Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Business%20Functions/Risk/Our%20Insights/COVID%2019%20Implications%20for%20business/COVID%2019%20May%2027/COVID-19-Facts-and-Insights-June-1-vF.ashx

Percentage of emergency department (ED) visits for COVID-19-like illness (CLI), in 14 counties (three in California and Washington [A]; four in Illinois, Louisiana, Massachusetts, and Michigan [B]; and seven in New York [C]) -National Syndromic Surveillance System, February 1-April 7, 2020

U.S. coronavirus outbreak
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6922e1.htm

Outbreak Pace
Graphic source: https://www.cnbc.com/2020/05/21/global-coronavirus-cases-surpass-5-million-johns-hopkins-data-shows.html

countries in danger
Graphic source: https://twitter.com/EricTopol/status/1260659915816792064

How to beat covid
Graphic source: https://twitter.com/yaneerbaryam/status/1256769252369072134

Estimated Prevalence
Graphic source: https://www.webmd.com/lung/news/20200424/more-data-bolsters-higher-covid-prevalence

April 17, 2020 stats February 24, 2020 stats

Shifting Global Burden March 11, 2020
Graphic source: https://www.wsj.com/articles/u-s-coronavirus-cases-top-1-000-11583917794

Hotspots
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6933e2.htm

FIGURE 1. Number of COVID-19 hotspot alerts, by county and number of days* meeting hotspot criteria for (A) March 8-April 30, (B) May 1-31, (C) June 1-July 15, and (D) entire period - United States, March 8-July 15, 2020

Hotspot Maps
Map source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6933e2.htm

FIGURE 2. Daily number of COVID-19 hotspot alerts, by urbanicity, and 7-day average of new reported cases - United States, March 8-July 15, 2020

Hotspots Urbanicity
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6933e2.htm

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The Search for Patient Zero


First documented case (11/17/2019)

Patient Zero Nov 17, 2019
Map Source: https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1009620

Continual search for Patient Zero

Wuhan December cases
Map source: https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2021/07/19/1016005828/new-data-leads-to-rethinking-once-more-where-the-pandemic-actually-began

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Zoonotic Origins


Emerging infections
Graphic source: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/who-convened-global-study-of-originI>

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COVID-19 in Animals


WHO - COVID-19 in animals
Graphic source: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/who-convened-global-study-of-origins-of-sars-cov-2-china-part-annexes.pdf

WHO Animal spillover
Graphic source: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/who-convened-global-study-of-origins-of-sars-cov-2-china-part-annexes.pdf

Susceptible animals
Graphic source: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/who-convened-global-study-of-origins-of-sars-cov-2-china-part-annexes.pdf

Animals and COVID-19
Old World primates and great apes have identical amino acids at the binding site to humans and are predicted to be at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. (Infographic by Matt Verdolivo/UC Davis)
Graphic source: https://www.ucdavis.edu/news/genomic-analysis-reveals-many-animal-species-may-be-vulnerable-sars-cov-2-infection

Covid in animals
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6923e3.htm

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Genomic Sequencing Characteristics


"Experts’ recommendations on how many cases should be sequenced vary, but many say sequencing around 5 percent of cases would begin to adequately show the spread of variants circulating at low levels." (https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/03/06/us/coronavirus-variant-sequencing.html)

Genomic sequencing
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/gao-21-426sp

NYC Covid strain
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6928a5.htm

COVID19 genome
Graphic source: https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/06/09/2008176117

COVID19 genome
Graphic source: https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/06/09/2008176117

Sar2 genome
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/30/science/coronavirus-mutations.html

Key Coronavirus proteins
Graphic source: Nature Briefing

COVID structure
Graphic source; https://www.zmescience.com/science/cells-infected-coronavirus-95362/


Video source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/22/us/coronavirus-sequencing.html

Blood Type

Blood Type and Covid
Graphic source: https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/932333

Blood type and covid
Graphic source: https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/932333

Blood type and positive COVID test
Graphic source: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/935827

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Genomics

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Genetic Mutations; COVID-19 Variants

Variants Renamed
Graphic source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/sarscov2-variants-renamed-101622507347899.html

Variants
Graphic source: https://informationisbeautiful.net/visualizations/covid-19-coronavirus-infographic-datapack/

Hostile Takeovers
Graphic source: https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2021/08/new-sars-cov-2-variants-have-changed-pandemic-what-will-virus-do-next

Delta Variant vs. Ancestor
Graphic source: NY Times, via F. Perry Wilson, Methods Man

Variant Prevalence
Graphic source: Our World in Data

Variants of Concern
Graphic source: https://www.who.int/en/activities/tracking-SARS-CoV-2-variants/

Variants of Interest
Graphic source: https://www.who.int/en/activities/tracking-SARS-CoV-2-variants/

Variants
Graphic source: https://cosmosmagazine.com/health/medicine/new-variants-on-the-rise/#science

COVID-19 Variants and mutations
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/health/coronavirus-variant-tracker.html

COVID-19 variants
Graphic source: https://www.webmd.com/lung/news/20210324/variants-of-variants-seen-in-covid-ravaged-brazil

US COVID19 variants
Graphic source: https://usafacts.org/articles/1-in-6-americans-are-fully-vaccinated-and-4-more-new-things-about-covid-19/

US - UK variants
Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7003e2.htm

US - UK variants
Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7003e2.htm

US - UK variants
Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7003e2.htm

March 9, 2021 US Variants
Graphic source: https://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/map-track-spread-covid-19-variants-across-united-states-n1256131 March 9, 2021

Minnesota Variant
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7008e1.htm

Variants and Strains
Graphic source: https://cosmosmagazine.com/health/medicine/mutations-variants-and-strains/

New Variants
Graphic source: https://cov-lineages.org/global_report.html

Variant B1.1.7
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7003e2.htm

COVID-19 Variant reported by Japan, January 11, 2021

Japan variant
Graphic source: https://www.niid.go.jp/niid/ja/diseases/ka/corona-virus/2019-ncov/10107-covid19-33.html

JAMA - COVID variants
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2775006

B117 variant
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/21/health/new-covid-strain-uk.html

Tracking mutations
Graphic source: https://time.com/5870481/coronavirus-origins/


Specific Variants

Map of COVID-19 Delta variant spread
Graphic source: https://www.cnbc.com/2021/08/09/covid-epidemiologist-larry-brilliant-on-delta-variant-vaccinations.html

Delta Variant
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7032e2.htm

CDC Delta Variant
Graphic source: https://twitter.com/CDCgov/status/1422286839457665031

Variants of Concern
Graphic source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ha6yUxze1vk&t=3s

The numerals in this illustration show the main mutation sites of the delta variant of the coronavirus, which is likely the most contagious version. Here, the virus's spike protein (red) binds to a receptor on a human cell (blue). [Juan Gaertner/Science Source]

Delta Variant
Graphic source;https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2021/07/08/1013794996/why-the-delta-variant-is-so-contagious-a-new-study-sheds-light

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Case Definition


3 stages of covid
Graphic source: https://www.ccjm.org/content/early/2020/12/01/ccjm.87a.ccc066

COVID-19 Framework
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2773338

WHO case definition
Graphic source: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/927860

Flu vs Covid
Graphic source: PriMed

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Contact Tracing


Contact Tracing

Contact Tracing

Contact Tracing
Graphic source for 3: https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/public-sector/our-insights/contact-tracing-for-covid-19-new-considerations-for-its-practical-application

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Disease Distribution


SARS-CoV-2 introductions to U.S. and Europe. Credit: Modified from Worobey M, Science, 2020. (Source: 9/22/2020 NIH Director's Blog)

China to US

Percentage of people in communities across the United States infected by the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19 as of December 2020. Credit: Pei S, Nature, 2021.

Americans Infected
Graphic source: https://directorsblog.nih.gov/2021/09/07/covid-19-infected-many-more-americans-in-2020-than-official-tallies-show/

Child Cases
Graphic source: https://www.webmd.com/lung/news/20210824/covid-cases-in-children-soar

COVID-19 demographics
Graphic source: https://mma.prnewswire.com/media/1533546/A_Detailed_Study_of_Patients_with_Long_Haul_COVID__An_Analysis_of_Private_Health.pdf?p=pdf

COVID-19
Graphic source: https://mma.prnewswire.com/media/1533546/A_Detailed_Study_of_Patients_with_Long_Haul_COVID__An_Analysis_of_Private_Health.pdf?p=pdf

COVID-19 Reaction Type
Graphic source: https://mma.prnewswire.com/media/1533546/A_Detailed_Study_of_Patients_with_Long_Haul_COVID__An_Analysis_of_Private_Health.pdf?p=pdf

COVID-19 Reaction Type, by Age group
Graphic source: https://mma.prnewswire.com/media/1533546/A_Detailed_Study_of_Patients_with_Long_Haul_COVID__An_Analysis_of_Private_Health.pdf?p=pdf

COVID-19 Reaction Type over time
Graphic source: https://mma.prnewswire.com/media/1533546/A_Detailed_Study_of_Patients_with_Long_Haul_COVID__An_Analysis_of_Private_Health.pdf?p=pdf

one in five infected
Graphic source: https://www.economist.com/graphic-detail/2020/12/10/almost-one-in-five-americans-may-have-been-infected-with-covid-19

18-22 Covid Surveillance
Graphic Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6939e4.htm

18-22 COVID testing
Graphic Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6939e4.htm

18-22 Race Ethnicity with COVID
Graphic Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6939e4.htm

Rise in COVID-19 kids
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/08/31/us/coronavirus-cases-children.html

COVID-19 incidence among school-aged children aged 5-11 years (N = 101,503) and 12-17 years (N = 175,782), by week - United States, March 1-September 19, 2020

COVID-19 and kids
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6939e2.htm

Percentage of SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests with positive results and test volume, by week for school-aged children aged 5-11 years and 12-17 years - United States, May 3-September 19, 2020

COVID-19 testing and kids
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6939e2.htm

California cases
Graphic source: https://www.mercurynews.com/2020/06/16/age-of-covid-19-cases-dropping-in-california/

Cases by agegroups
Graphic source; https://www.statista.com/chart/21173/hospitalization-icu-admission-and-fatality-rates-for-reported-coronavirus-cases/

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Disease Process


frhb

Spike Proteins
Graphic source: https://www.nih.gov/news-events/nih-research-matters/understanding-sars-cov-2-antibody-binding

The Process of How SARS-CoV-2 Infects the Host

How Sars2 infects cells
Graphic source: https://www.acrobiosystems.com/A1213-The-Process-of-How-SARS-CoV-2-Infects-the-Host.html

Prognostic Factors for progression
Graphic source: https://media.primeinc.org/upload/programs/54BQ2021/Assessing%20COVID-19%20Disease%20Severity%20and%20Identifying%20Risk%20Factors%20for%20Disease%20Progression.pdf

HIV latent infections
Graphic source: https://earthsky.org/human-world/does-coronavirus-linger-in-body-immune-system-covid

COVID pathophysiology
Graphic source: https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiol.2020201629

immunogenesis
Graphic source; https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2768391

ACE2 is the target for the novel coronavirus

ACE2
Graphic source: https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-alzheimers-disease/jad200581


Graphic source: https://hms.harvard.edu/news/how-covid-19-causes-loss-smell

NeuroCovid Stages

Neurocovid states
Graphic source: https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-alzheimers-disease/jad200581

Scheme of the effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in obese individuals.

Obesity disease process
Graphic source: https://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(20)30477-8/fulltext

How Coronavirus Infects People
Graphic source: https://www.livescience.com/covid-19-superspreader-singing.html (Image credit: Nicholas Forder)

AGE WELL: On average, as this chart reveals, chronic diseases increase with aging, which makes the elderly more susceptible to COVID-19. This deadly combination is a stark reminder, again, of doing our best to stay healthy.

Age and comorbidities
Graphic course: http://nautil.us/issue/84/outbreak/how-covid_19-picks-on-the-weakened. Aging and the Epidemiology of Multi-morbidity

Reinfection

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Disease Severity


Disease Severity
Graphic source: https://media.primeinc.org/upload/programs/54BQ2021/Assessing%20COVID-19%20Disease%20Severity%20and%20Identifying%20Risk%20Factors%20for%20Disease%20Progression.pdf

Vulnerable Populations

Vulnerable Populations
Graphic source: https://www.webmd.com/lung/news/20200602/vulnerable-groups-weigh-risks-as-country-reopens

Mild or Moderate Covid-19
Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp2009249

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Disease Statistics


Epidemic Curve of the Confirmed Cases of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
Chinese CDC Report 2/24/2020 JAMA
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762130

US cases
Graphic source: statista.com/chart/21547/cumulative-covid-19-cases-in-the-us/

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Hospitalization Statistics


ICU Maxxed out   September 13, 2021
Map source: https://finance.yahoo.com/news/delta-variant-unvaccinated-and-vaccinated-people-are-not-in-the-same-ballpark-in-terms-of-risk-141843308.html

Pediatric Vaccination
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7036e2.htm

Children COVID-19 Hospitalizations
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7036e1.htm

Hospitalization characteristics
Graphic source: https://media.primeinc.org/upload/programs/54BQ2021/Assessing%20COVID-19%20Disease%20Severity%20and%20Identifying%20Risk%20Factors%20for%20Disease%20Progression.pdf

Teen COVID hospitalizations Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7023e1.htm

Hospitalizations by Race/Ethnicity
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/reports/GAO-21-191/#Highlights

Hospital Readmissions
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6945e2.htm

Covid race/ethnicity data

Hospitalizations, underlying conditions
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6924e2.htm

Hospitalizations by Age
Graphic source: https://time.com/5867751/bars-covid/

Medicare hospitalizations by race
Graphic source: https://www.kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/slide/in-medicare-black-and-hispanic-individuals-account-for-disproportionate-share-of-covid-19-cases-and-hospitalizations/

COVID-19 admissions by race and ethnicity
Graphic source: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/931633

Age and Hospitalizations
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/older-adults.html

US COVID-19 hospitalizations
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6925e1.htm

Hospitalization and comorbidity
Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/22018/coronavirus-pre-existing-conditions/

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Life Expectancy

IMG SRC="BG2021/NCHS-COVID-lifeexpectancy.jpg" width=800 Alt="COVID shortens life expectancy">
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/vsrr/vsrr015-508.pdf

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Potential Life Lost

PYLL
Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid-19-pandemic-related-excess-mortality-and-potential-years-of-life-lost-in-the-u-s-and-peer-countries/

PYLL-Disparities
Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid-19-pandemic-related-excess-mortality-and-potential-years-of-life-lost-in-the-u-s-and-peer-countries/

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Prevalence Statistics


Percentage of people in communities across the United States infected by the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19 as of December 2020. Credit: Pei S, Nature, 2021.

Americans Infected
Graphic source: https://directorsblog.nih.gov/2021/09/07/covid-19-infected-many-more-americans-in-2020-than-official-tallies-show/

Daily new confirmed COVID-19 cases per million people, Dec 9, 2020 The number of confirmed cases is lower than the number of actual cases; the main reason for that is limited testing.

New cases per 1 million
Graphic source: https://ourworldindata.org/coronavirus-data-explorer?tab=map&zoomToSelection=true&country=GBR~USA~ESP~ITA~BRA~IND~KOR®ion=World&casesMetric=true&interval=daily&hideControls=true&perCapita=true&smoothing=0&pickerMetric=location&pickerSort=asc

Model-based estimates of U.S. prevalence (A) and number (B) of adults aged ≥18 years with any selected underlying medical condition, by county United States, 2018

County Prevalence
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6929a1.htm

Point prevalence COVID-19
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6929e1.htm

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Death Statistics


COVID-19 number 3 in 2021
Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid-19-continues-to-be-a-leading-cause-of-death-in-the-u-s-in-august-2021/

2020-2021
Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid-19-continues-to-be-a-leading-cause-of-death-in-the-u-s-in-august-2021/

3rd leading cause of death
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7014e1.htm

July 2021 - Covid deaths by race & ethnicity
Graphic source: https://usafacts.org/articles/summer-covid-19-cases-and-deaths-in-five-charts/

July 2021 Covid deaths by age groups
Graphic source: https://usafacts.org/articles/summer-covid-19-cases-and-deaths-in-five-charts/

July 2021 Covid deaths
Graphic source: https://usafacts.org/articles/summer-covid-19-cases-and-deaths-in-five-charts/

COVID-19 deaths
Graphic source: https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2021/06/16/americans-lost-more-years-of-life-to-covid-19-in-2020-than-to-all-accidents-combined-in-a-typical-year/

COVID-19 deaths
Graphic source: https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2021/06/16/americans-lost-more-years-of-life-to-covid-19-in-2020-than-to-all-accidents-combined-in-a-typical-year/

Who's dying
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/06/16/world/covid-vaccine-coronavirus-mask

June 16, 2021 - US - 600,000 deaths from COVID-19 US death pace
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/06/16/world/covid-vaccine-coronavirus-mask

JAMA leading causes of death
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2778234

MMWR 4/2021
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7014e1.htm

2020 deaths
Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/coronavirus-leading-through-the-crisis/charting-the-path-to-the-next-normal/in-2020-covid-19-deaths-were-eight-times-greater-than-a-typical-flu-season

U.S. on Sunday, February 21, 2021, hit the half-a-million mark for the number of lives claimed by Covid-19. Every dot on our 500,000 lives lost map represents a person who has died from the virus in the U.S., beginning with the first reported death on Feb. 29, 2020. @NBCNews

Feb 2021, 1/2 million dead
Graphic source: Washington Post Coronavirus Update

Death by Race, Ethnicity
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/reports/GAO-21-191/#Highlights

Covid deaths, race/ethnicity, agegroups
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/reports/GAO-21-191/#Highlights

Excess deaths
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2771761

Excess Deaths
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/reports/GAO-20-708/

COVID-10 3rd leading cause of death
Graphic source: https://twitter.com/bettycjung/status/1286716769441320960

COVID-19 deaths, including probable deaths
Graphic source: https://www.axios.com/axios-ipsos-coronavirus-week-8-5a1947d5-9850-4e58-9583-9b617e6fdc1b.html

Rapid Mortality Surveillance
Graphic source: https://www.theigc.org/blog/why-we-dont-know-the-real-number-of-covid-19-deaths-in-africa/

Vaccination Efficacy

Vaccine Efficacy
Graphic source: https://www.medpagetoday.com/special-reports/exclusives/95119

Vaccines reduce deaths and hospitalizations
Graphic source: https://ctnewsjunkie.com/2021/10/06/study-says-vaccinations-prevented-death-in-connecticut/

unvaccinated hospitalizations
Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/unvaccinated-covid-patients-cost-the-u-s-health-system-billions-of-dollars/

CHA Unvaccinated Vaccinations
Graphic source: https://ctnewsjunkie.com/2021/09/03/a-high-price-hospital-association-assesses-cost-of-care-for-unvaccinated/

Vaccine Efficacy
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7037e1.htm

July 2021 Covid deaths by vaccination status
Graphic source: https://usafacts.org/articles/summer-covid-19-cases-and-deaths-in-five-charts/

Vaccinations and deaths
Graphic source: July 19, 2021 New York Times

Vaccine Effectiveness
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7023e2.htm

unvaccinated hospitalizations
Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/unvaccinated-covid-patients-cost-the-u-s-health-system-billions-of-dollars/

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Statistics Issues


COVID-19 Test Reporting

COVID-19 Vaccination Reporting

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Data Reporting

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Death Statistics

Excess Deaths
Graphic source: https://twitter.com/MaxCRoser/status/1434228604666368007/photo/1

The Economist journalists updated their a model of the true death toll of the pandemic, corrected for underreporting. They come to the conclusion that 15.2 million have died, more than 3-times the official toll of 4.6m. This map shows the distribution of the death rate.

Hospitalization Data

Incomplete/Missing Demographics and Variables, Reporting

Poor quality COVID-19 child data
Graphic source: https://www.covkidproject.org/state-report-card

Manipulation of Data Reporting

FL DOH reporting
Graphic source: https://www.miamiherald.com/news/coronavirus/article253796898.html

FL death trend reporting
Graphic source: https://www.miamiherald.com/news/coronavirus/article253796898.html

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Prevalence Data

Probable Cases/Excess Deaths

Excess Deaths and racial disparities
Graphic source: https://www.kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/slide/during-pandemic-higher-premature-excess-deaths-in-u-s-compared-to-peer-countries-partly-driven-by-racial-disparities/

Excess Mortality
Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid-19-pandemic-related-excess-mortality-and-potential-years-of-life-lost-in-the-u-s-and-peer-countries/

Excess Mortality
Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid-19-pandemic-related-excess-mortality-and-potential-years-of-life-lost-in-the-u-s-and-peer-countries/

Excess Mortality
Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid-19-pandemic-related-excess-mortality-and-potential-years-of-life-lost-in-the-u-s-and-peer-countries/

JAMA Excess Deaths
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2778361

Excess Death Charts
Graphic source: https://www.economist.com/graphic-detail/2020/07/15/tracking-covid-19-excess-deaths-across-countries

Undercounting

Africa undercounting Graphic source: https://www.bmj.com/content/372/bmj.n334

Actual New Cases
Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2021/02/06/964527835/why-the-pandemic-is-10-times-worse-than-you-think

Actively infectious
Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2021/02/06/964527835/why-the-pandemic-is-10-times-worse-than-you-think

< P>

Vaccination Data

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COVID-19 Risk Factors


Riskiest Activities
Graphic source: https://informationisbeautiful.net/visualizations/covid-19-coronavirus-infographic-datapack/

COVID Comorbidities
Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/2020-year-in-review/a-tale-of-2020-in-20-mckinsey-charts

COVID Mortality Predictors
Graphic source: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/941521

Risk factors
Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/22365/prevalence-of-underlying-conditions-in-us-adults/

Know your risks
Graphic source: Texas Medical Association

Age COVID risk factor
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/older-adults.html

Risk factors
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/people-with-medical-conditions.html

Possible Risk factors
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/people-with-medical-conditions.html

High Risk Factors
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/downloads/COVID19-What-You-Can-Do-High-Risk.pdf

Risk Factors
Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp2009249

Cardiovascular

Cancer

Demographics

Race and burden
Graphic source: https://www.cnn.com/2020/08/20/us/systemic-racism-coronavirus-pandemic-trnd/index.html"

Deaths by Race, per 100,000
Graphic source: https://www.apmresearchlab.org/covid/deaths-by-race

Deaths by race
Graphic source: https://www.apmresearchlab.org/covid/deaths-by-race

Diabetes

Covid and Diabetes
Graphic source: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00125-021-05458-8

Covid-19 causes Type 1 diabetes
Graphic source: https://abcnews.go.com/Health/covid-19-virus-diabetes-studies-find/story

COVID-19 and Diabetes
Graphic source: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00125-021-05458-8

Drugs

Environmental Factors

Genetic Mutations

Health Behaviors

Hypertension

Liver Disease

Maternal/Child Health Issues

Mental Illness

Nutrition

Obesity

risk factors - obesity, hypertension, diabetes
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2770542

Obesity risk factors
Graphic source: https://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(20)30477-8/fulltext

Clinical manifestations and mechanisms for COVID‐19 risk in individuals with obesity

Obesity and COVID-19
Graphic source: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/obr.13128

Phenotypes

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COVID-19 Incubation Period


Nature: Estimated that the incubation period for COVID-19 before the onset of symptoms was 5.2 days. Viral loads for COVID-19 were highest shortly after the onset of symptoms and then gradually decreased toward the detection limit by day 21. Sex, age, and disease severity did not substantially affect these findings.

The authors estimated that infectiousness of COVID-19 began 2.3 days before the onset of symptoms and peaked at 0.7 days after symptom onset. They further estimated that up to 44% of cases of COVID-19 could be a result of viral transmission before the onset of symptoms. Source: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/932932 (6/2020)

Incubation Period
Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp2009575

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COVID-19 Symptoms


Symptom-based COVID types
Graphic source: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-types/symptom-tracker-app-reveals-six-distinct-types-of-covid-19-infection-idUSKCN24I1YI

Hispanic and non-Hispanic COVID-19 symptoms
Graphic source; https://salud-america.org/coronavirus-case-rates-and-death-rates-for-latinos-in-the-united-states/

Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of previous or current SARS-CoV-2 infection, by individual symptoms among service members reporting at least one symptom (n = 284) — USS Theodore Roosevelt, April 2020 (June 2020)

Navy symptoms
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6923e4.htm

CDC Signs and symptoms
Graphic source: https://int.nyt.com/data/documenthelper/6926-mayhhsbriefing/af7319f4a55fd0ce5dc9/optimized/full.pdf#page=1

Updated CDC COVID-19 symptom list (4/27/2020)

CDC COVID-19 symptom list April 27, 2020
Graphic source: https://heavy.com/news/2020/04/early-symptoms-coronavirus-covid-19/

Symptoms

General

Dermatological Manifestations

Hearing Loss

Loss of Smell

Loss of Smell
Graphic source: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00210#

Psychiatric Symptoms

Tooth Loss

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COVID-19 Transmission


Transmission Routes


Transmission Chains
Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-1092-0/figures/2

SARS-CoV-2 introductions to U.S. and Europe. Credit: Modified from Worobey M, Science, 2020.

Transmission Routes
Graphic source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32912998/

Transmission by stage of infection
Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp2009249

Current Sites of COVID-19 cases

COVID-19 cases
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2767010

Potential Sites for future COVID-19 cases

COVID-19 potential second wave cases
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2767010


Reproduction Number


"To determine when an outbreak had been contained, scientists look at case counts and determine the reproduction number, a measurement that shows how many people will be infected by one infectious person. If the reproduction number drops below 1, scientists consider the outbreak contained." (Source: https://news.utexas.edu/2020/06/01/for-each-days-delay-in-social-distancing-a-covid-19-outbreak-lasts-days-longer/)

R naught, variants, herd immunity threshold
Graphic source: @fperrywilson

COVID infectiousness
Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/risk/our-insights/covid-19-implications-for-business

R-naught - the theory R-naught - the reality of superspreaders
R naught Superspreaders

Source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/22/well/live/coronavirus-pandemic-memorial-day-picnics-bbqs.html


Graphic source: https://www.cnn.com/2020/10/06/health/flu-covid-19-deaths-comparison-trnd/index.html

College superspreader event
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6926e1.htm

superspreader Ro
Graphic source: https://www.zdnet.com/article/google-researchers-show-how-covid-19-super-spreaders-are-a-big-part-of-the-problem/">

Reich and colleagues show that even for the same "R," transmission rate, on average, infections can rise faster with a higher "gamma," the measure of how many "degrees" of contacts a person in the society has -- the super-spreaders.

Reproduction Number
Graphic source: https://cosmosmagazine.com/biology/measuring-different-responses-to-covid-19

Disease Contagiousness
Graphic source; https://www.vox.com/2020/1/28/21079946/coronavirus-china-wuhan-deaths-pandemic

R effective
Graphic source: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2020/05/coronavirus-how-to-measure-your-nation-response-cvd/"

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Asymptomatic/Pre-symptomatic (Silent Spreader/Stealth) Transmission


Germany Asymptomatic Transmission
Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc2001468

Asymptomatic transmission
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6923e4.htm

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Superspreader Events (SSEs)


Unmasked airborne spread
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7035e2.htm

High Mixers
Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/coronavirus-leading-through-the-crisis/charting-the-path-to-the-next-normal/people-who-see-people-how-high-mixers-help-spread-covid-19

US superspreader events
Graphic source: https://public.tableau.com/profile/betsy.ladyzhets#!/vizhome/superspreadingevents/DashSuperspreadingeventsmap

Covid-19 superspreader - Motorcycle Rally
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6947e1.htm

Distribution of COVID-19 cases (N = 177) linked to a rural wedding reception, by date of onset or test - Maine, August 7–September 14, 2020

Maine Wedding Epi Map
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6945a5.htm

Maine Wedding
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6945a5.htm

Superspreaders
Graphic source: https://news.mit.edu/2020/super-spreading-covid-transmission-1102

Hockey game superspreader
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6941a4.htm

Transmission chains and attack rates in three COVID-19 child care facility outbreaks, Salt Lake County, Utah, April 1-July 10, 2020

Childcare superspreader
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6937e3.htm

Airborne Transmission
Graphic source: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8094933/How-one-man-spread-coronavirus-NINE-people-bus.html

China Restaurant
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/20/health/airflow-coronavirus-restaurants.html

Chinese Restaurant transmission

Funeral community transmission
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6915e1.htm

Funeral community transmission

CDC - Korean Call Center - Blue = infected with COVID-19

CDC-Korean Caller Center
Graphic source: https://www.vox.com/21262268/coronavirus-tips-covid-social-distancing-harm-reduction

Church spread
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6920e2.htm

Austria superspreader
Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/21699/coronavirus-outbreak-in-ischgl/"

Korea superspreader
Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/21697/contact-tracing-response-seoul-south-korea-covid-19/

Superspreaders
Graphic source: https://www.zdnet.com/article/google-researchers-show-how-covid-19-super-spreaders-are-a-big-part-of-the-problem/

Reich and colleagues construct graphs of people in their various states of infection and the like among people, to simulate how COVID-19 spreads. Caption from the article: "Contact tracing. Some share of the neighbors of a node which tests positive are traced and tested themselves." Reich et al. 2020

Superspreaders
Graphic source: https://cosmosmagazine.com/biology/how-social-distancing-flattens-the-curve-of-coronavirus

This graph shows how an epidemic might spread across a network over time. Blue dots are susceptible individuals, while red dots are infected people. Two dots are connected by a line if they are in contact with each other, and the more contacts a person has, the bigger their dot is on the network. Author provided

Infected people are red nodes, and susceptible people are blue. The large node in the middle of the diagram is a super-spreader, a person who connects with many others, and thus has more potential to spread the disease.

Documented Spreader Events
Graphic source: https://quillette.com/2020/04/23/covid-19-superspreader-events-in-28-countries-critical-patterns-and-lessons/

Timeline of events and symptom onsets, by day of investigation, in a cluster of COVID-19 likely transmitted at two family gatherings - Chicago, Illinois, February-March 2020


Video source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/14/us/coronavirus-updates.html
The farther the better

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Transmission Factors


Transmission Factors
Graphic source: https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid/ciaa1442/5910315

Viral Load Dynamics
Graphic source: https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid/ciaa1442/5910315

COVID-19 seasonality
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2767010

infectious disease transmission
Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-0869-5

a, Schematic of the relation between different time periods in the transmission of infectious disease. b, Human-to-human transmission pairs of SAR-CoV-2 virus (N=77). We assumed a maximum exposure window of 21 days prior to symptom onset of the secondary cases. Detailed information on the transmission pairs and the source of information is summarized in Supplementary Tables 2 and 3. c, Estimated serial interval distribution (top), inferred infectiousness profile (middle) and assumed incubation period (bottom) of COVID-19.

Viral shedding
Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-0869-5

Viral load (threshold cycle (Ct) values) detected by RT–PCR (PCR with reverse transcription) in throat swabs from patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 (N=94), overall and stratified by disease severity, sex, age group and link to Hubei province. The detection limit was Ct = 40, which was used to indicate negative samples. The thick lines show the trend in viral load, using smoothing splines. We added some noise to the data points to avoid overlaps.

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Air (Airborne)Transmission


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Hand Dryer Concerns


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Fecal-Oral Transmission


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Fomite (Contact) Transmission


COVID on surfaces
Graphic source: https://twitter.com/WebMD/status/1249276076146282496

Fomite
Graphic source: https://www.newyorker.com/science/elements/from-bats-to-human-lungs-the-evolution-of-a-coronavirus

According to researchers at Rocky Mountain Laboratories, some viral particles remain viable up to four hours on copper, twenty-four hours on cardboard, and seventy-two hours on plastic and stainless steel, though the number of viable particles begins to decrease within minutes.


Household Transmission


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Person to Person (Droplet/Respiratory; Saliva) Transmission


Saliva chart
Graphic source: https://cosmosmagazine.com/physics/when-you-cough-how-far-can-it-go

Droplet Spread
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-20-545SP

Subway spread
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-20-545SP

Determining the necessary spacing for effective social distancing, such as for riders in a subway car, can affect the extent of disease transmission. The shaded circle (top) shows the number of people who could be directly infected by droplets from a sick person.

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Sexual Transmission (Being investigated)



Vertical Transmission



Other Forms of Reported Transmission


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COVID-19 Testing


Collection and Analysis of Testing Data


Data Sources

Data Analysis

Mitigation vs. Suppression
Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2020/06/30/883703403/as-coronavirus-surges-how-much-testing-does-your-state-need-to-subdue-the-virus


Adequacy of Testing


"The rate of positivity is an important indicator because it can provide insights into whether a community is conducting enough testing to find cases. If a community’s positivity is high, it suggests that that community may largely be testing the sickest patients and possibly missing milder or asymptomatic cases. A lower positivity may indicate that a community is including in its testing patients with milder or no symptoms. The WHO has said that in countries that have conducted extensive testing for COVID-19, would remain at 5% or lower for at least 14 days." (Source: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/testing/individual-states)

Adequacy of Testing
Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2020/06/30/883703403/as-coronavirus-surges-how-much-testing-does-your-state-need-to-subdue-the-virus


Testing Basics


Testing Basics
Graphic source: https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/coronavirus-disease-2019-testing-basics

Other Testing Options
Graphic source: https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/coronavirus-disease-2019-testing-basics


Types of Testing


Current Available Tests
Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Business%20Functions/Risk/Our%20Insights/COVID%2019%20Implications%20for%20business/COVID%2019%20May%2027/COVID-19-Facts-and-Insights-June-1-vF.ashx

Covid Test types
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-20-584SP


Testing Strategy



Timing of Testing


Risk-based Testing
Updated 5/11/2020 by Betty C. Jung. Posted on Twitter

Risk-based Testing
Created 3/20/2020 by Betty C. Jung. Posted on Twitter

FDA Testing Priority
Graphic source: https://twitter.com/FDAHealthEquity/status/1245036877515759619

Testing interpretation
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2765837


Antigen Testing


Antigen Testing
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/resources/antigen-tests-guidelines.html .

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Molecular (CRISPR/Nucleic Acid/PCR) Testing



Serologic (Antigen/Antibody) Testing



Surveillance Testing