https://www.bettycjung.net/COVID-19.htm

COVID-19

Coronovirus
Graphic source: https://www.wowt.com/content/news/CDC-updates-on-coronavirus-workers-seek-to-prevent-outbreak-pandemic-568081961.html

COVID-19 AKA 2019 Novel Coronavirus; 2019-nCoV
Internet Resources

COVID-19 webpage QR Code

Scan and save this Webpage to your mobile device!

Betty C. Jung logo


A - L M - Z


Suggested Citation: Jung, B.C. (2020). COVID-19 Internet Resources.
Web document: https://www.bettycjung.net/COVID-19.htm


Mission: To provide a one-stop Web resource page with factual information about the COVID-19 Pandemic

According to PEW , social media users share COVID-19 information mostly from news sources (74%) and very little from health and science resources (1%). This could mean that people do not know where to look for credible science-based information about COVID-19.

On June 18, 2020, JAMA reported "Coronavirus disease 2019-related knowledge and behaviors were associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. African American participants, men, and people younger than 55 years were less likely to know how the disease is spread, were less likely to know the symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019, and left the home more often."

Furthermore, the prevalence of Coronavirus myths addressed by the World Health Organization indicates that there is much disinformation and misinformation on the Internet about the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

Therefore, I have decided to create this resource page for those interested in learning more about the pandemic. It is my hope, as Master Certified Health Education Specialist (MCHES®), that you will be able get the credible information you need here to make the decisions you have to make to deal with the pandemic in your life. I am dedicated to keeping this page updated with vetted sources, and welcome your feedback. (July 6, 2020)


Comments,suggestions, dead link reports:


Table of Content (Major sections)


COVID-19 Pandemic


CDC has three numbers you should consider to know if you've been exposed to the coronavirus: If you've been within six feet of an infected person for at least 15 minutes starting from 48 hours before the infected person began feeling sick, you are considered to have been in close contact with the virus. (Source: https://bestlifeonline.com/exposed-to-coronavirus/)

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Public Health Technical Reports


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Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Visualization Sites


United States

Healthcare & Hospitalization

Connecticut

Other COVID-19 Trackers

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COVID-19 Research Information


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COVID-19 Databases, Registries, Repositories


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CDC & Other Federal Agency Guidance


CDC Guidance

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Public Health Issues


July 8, 2020 Not Ready for Reopening
Graphic source; https://www.vox.com/2020/5/28/21270515/coronavirus-covid-reopen-economy-social-distancing-states-map-data

ICU capacity
Graphic source; https://www.vox.com/2020/5/28/21270515/coronavirus-covid-reopen-economy-social-distancing-states-map-data

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Epidemiology of COVID-19


Infectious Disease Models


Outbreak Models
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-20-582SP

COVID model
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-20-582SP


COVID-19 Wastewater Surveillance


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COVID-19 Outbreak


US early spread
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6922e1.htm

Timeline Comparing the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreaks

SARS and COVID-19 Timeline
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762130

Comparison SARS and nCoV
Graphic Source: NY Times Graphic, via @FelicityCarus #MackayIM

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COVID-19 Outbreak Trends


COVID-19 history
Graphic source; https://twitter.com/bettycjung/status/1282357711703887872

American Nations
Graphic source: https://www.pressherald.com/2020/07/05/how-the-geography-of-the-pandemic-is-determined-by-centuries-old-regional-differences/

US COVID-19 trends
Graphic source: https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2020/06/18/trump-claims-coronavirus-pandemic-is-ending-data-experts-disagree/

Disease progression
Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Business%20Functions/Risk/Our%20Insights/COVID%2019%20Implications%20for%20business/COVID%2019%20May%2027/COVID-19-Facts-and-Insights-June-1-vF.ashx

Percentage of emergency department (ED) visits for COVID-19-like illness (CLI), in 14 counties (three in California and Washington [A]; four in Illinois, Louisiana, Massachusetts, and Michigan [B]; and seven in New York [C]) -National Syndromic Surveillance System, February 1-April 7, 2020

U.S. coronavirus outbreak
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6922e1.htm

Outbreak Pace
Graphic source: https://www.cnbc.com/2020/05/21/global-coronavirus-cases-surpass-5-million-johns-hopkins-data-shows.html

countries in danger
Graphic source: https://twitter.com/EricTopol/status/1260659915816792064

How to beat covid
Graphic source: https://twitter.com/yaneerbaryam/status/1256769252369072134

Estimated Prevalence
Graphic source: https://www.webmd.com/lung/news/20200424/more-data-bolsters-higher-covid-prevalence

April 17, 2020 stats February 24, 2020 stats

Shifting Global Burden March 11, 2020
Graphic source: https://www.wsj.com/articles/u-s-coronavirus-cases-top-1-000-11583917794

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The Search for Patient Zero


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Zoonotic Origins


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COVID-19 in Animals


Covid in animals
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6923e3.htm

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Genomic Sequencing Characteristics


COVID19 genome
Graphic source: https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/06/09/2008176117

COVID19 genome
Graphic source: https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/06/09/2008176117

Sar2 genome
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/30/science/coronavirus-mutations.html

Key Coronavirus proteins
Graphic source: Nature Briefing

COVID structure
Graphic source; https://www.zmescience.com/science/cells-infected-coronavirus-95362/


Video source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/22/us/coronavirus-sequencing.html

Blood Type

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Genomics

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Genetic Mutations

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Case Definition


WHO case definition
Graphic source: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/927860

Flu vs Covid
Graphic source: PriMed

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Contact Tracing


Contact Tracing

Contact Tracing

Contact Tracing
Graphic source for 3: https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/public-sector/our-insights/contact-tracing-for-covid-19-new-considerations-for-its-practical-application

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Disease Distribution


California cases
Graphic source: https://www.mercurynews.com/2020/06/16/age-of-covid-19-cases-dropping-in-california/

Cases by agegroups
Graphic source; https://www.statista.com/chart/21173/hospitalization-icu-admission-and-fatality-rates-for-reported-coronavirus-cases/

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Disease Process


COVID pathophysiology
Graphic source: https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiol.2020201629

immunogenesis
Graphic source; https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2768391

ACE2 is the target for the novel coronavirus

ACE2
Graphic source: https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-alzheimers-disease/jad200581

NeuroCovid Stages

Neurocovid states
Graphic source: https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-alzheimers-disease/jad200581

How Coronavirus Infects People
Graphic source: https://www.livescience.com/covid-19-superspreader-singing.html (Image credit: Nicholas Forder)

AGE WELL: On average, as this chart reveals, chronic diseases increase with aging, which makes the elderly more susceptible to COVID-19. This deadly combination is a stark reminder, again, of doing our best to stay healthy.

Age and comorbidities
Graphic course: http://nautil.us/issue/84/outbreak/how-covid_19-picks-on-the-weakened. Aging and the Epidemiology of Multimorbidity

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Disease Severity


Vulnerable Populations

Vulnerable Populations
Graphic source: https://www.webmd.com/lung/news/20200602/vulnerable-groups-weigh-risks-as-country-reopens

Mild or Moderate Covid-19
Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp2009249

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Disease Statistics


Epidemic Curve of the Confirmed Cases of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
Chinese CDC Report 2/24/2020 JAMA
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762130

US cases
Graphic source: statista.com/chart/21547/cumulative-covid-19-cases-in-the-us/

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Hospitalization Statistics


Medicare hospitalizations by race
Graphic source: https://www.kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/slide/in-medicare-black-and-hispanic-individuals-account-for-disproportionate-share-of-covid-19-cases-and-hospitalizations/

COVID-19 admissions by race and ethnicity
Graphic source: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/931633

Age and Hospitalizations
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/older-adults.html

US COVID-19 hospitalizations
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6925e1.htm

Hospitalization and comorbidity
Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/22018/coronavirus-pre-existing-conditions/

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Death Statistics


COVID-19 deaths, including probable deaths
Graphic source: https://www.axios.com/axios-ipsos-coronavirus-week-8-5a1947d5-9850-4e58-9583-9b617e6fdc1b.html

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Statistics Issues


COVID-19 Test Reporting

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Data Reporting

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Death Statistics

Incomplete/Missing Demographics and Variables

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Prevalence Data

Probable Cases/Excess Deaths

Undercounting

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COVID-19 Risk Factors


Know your risks
Graphic source: Texas Medical Association

Age COVID risk factor
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/older-adults.html

Risk factors
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/people-with-medical-conditions.html

Possible Risk factors
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/people-with-medical-conditions.html

High Risk Factors
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/downloads/COVID19-What-You-Can-Do-High-Risk.pdf

Risk Factors
Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp2009249

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COVID-19 Incubation Period


Nature: Estimated that the incubation period for COVID-19 before the onset of symptoms was 5.2 days. Viral loads for COVID-19 were highest shortly after the onset of symptoms and then gradually decreased toward the detection limit by day 21. Sex, age, and disease severity did not substantially affect these findings.

The authors estimated that infectiousness of COVID-19 began 2.3 days before the onset of symptoms and peaked at 0.7 days after symptom onset. They further estimated that up to 44% of cases of COVID-19 could be a result of viral transmission before the onset of symptoms. Source: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/932932 (6/2020)

Incubation Period
Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp2009575

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COVID-19 Symptoms


Hispanic and non-Hispanic COVID-19 symptoms
Graphic source; https://salud-america.org/coronavirus-case-rates-and-death-rates-for-latinos-in-the-united-states/

Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of previous or current SARS-CoV-2 infection, by individual symptoms among service members reporting at least one symptom (n = 284) — USS Theodore Roosevelt, April 2020 (June 2020)

Navy symptoms
Graphic soruce: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6923e4.htm

CDC Signs and symptoms
Graphic source: https://int.nyt.com/data/documenthelper/6926-mayhhsbriefing/af7319f4a55fd0ce5dc9/optimized/full.pdf#page=1

Updated CDC COVID-19 symptom list (4/27/2020)

CDC COVID-19 symptom list April 27, 2020
Graphic source: https://heavy.com/news/2020/04/early-symptoms-coronavirus-covid-19/

Symptoms

Loss of Smell

Loss of Smell
Graphic source: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00210#

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COVID-19 Transmission


Transmission Routes


Transmission by stage of infection
Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp2009249

Current Sites of COVID-19 cases

COVID-19 cases
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2767010

Potential Sites for future COVID-19 cases

COVID-19 potential second wave cases
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2767010


Reproduction Number


"To determine when an outbreak had been contained, scientists look at case counts and determine the reproduction number, a measurement that shows how many people will be infected by one infectious person. If the reproduction number drops below 1, scientists consider the outbreak contained." (Source: https://news.utexas.edu/2020/06/01/for-each-days-delay-in-social-distancing-a-covid-19-outbreak-lasts-days-longer/)

R-naught - the theory R-naught - the reality of superspreaders
R naught Superspreaders

Source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/22/well/live/coronavirus-pandemic-memorial-day-picnics-bbqs.html

College superspreader event
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6926e1.htm

superspreader Ro
Graphic source: https://www.zdnet.com/article/google-researchers-show-how-covid-19-super-spreaders-are-a-big-part-of-the-problem/">

Reich and colleagues show that even for the same "R," transmission rate, on average, infections can rise faster with a higher "gamma," the measure of how many "degrees" of contacts a person in the society has -- the super-spreaders.

Reproduction Number
Graphic source: https://cosmosmagazine.com/biology/measuring-different-responses-to-covid-19

Disease Contagiousness
Graphic source; https://www.vox.com/2020/1/28/21079946/coronavirus-china-wuhan-deaths-pandemic

R effective
Graphic source: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2020/05/coronavirus-how-to-measure-your-nation-response-cvd/"

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Asymptomatic/Pre-symptomatic (Silent Spreader/Stealth) Transmission


Germany Asymptomatic Transmission
Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc2001468

Asymptomatic transmission
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6923e4.htm

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Superspreader Events (SSEs)


China Restaurant
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/20/health/airflow-coronavirus-restaurants.html

Chinese Restaurant transmission

Funeral community transmission
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6915e1.htm

Funeral community transmission

CDC - Korean Call Center - Blue = infected with COVID-19

CDC-Korean Caller Center
Graphic source: https://www.vox.com/21262268/coronavirus-tips-covid-social-distancing-harm-reduction

Church spread
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6920e2.htm

Austria superspreader
Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/21699/coronavirus-outbreak-in-ischgl/"

Korea superspreader
Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/21697/contact-tracing-response-seoul-south-korea-covid-19/

Superspreaders
Graphic source: https://www.zdnet.com/article/google-researchers-show-how-covid-19-super-spreaders-are-a-big-part-of-the-problem/

Reich and colleagues construct graphs of people in their various states of infection and the like among people, to simulate how COVID-19 spreads. Caption from the article: "Contact tracing. Some share of the neighbors of a node which tests positive are traced and tested themselves." Reich et al. 2020

Superspreaders
Graphic source: https://cosmosmagazine.com/biology/how-social-distancing-flattens-the-curve-of-coronavirus

This graph shows how an epidemic might spread across a network over time. Blue dots are susceptible individuals, while red dots are infected people. Two dots are connected by a line if they are in contact with each other, and the more contacts a person has, the bigger their dot is on the network. Author provided

Infected people are red nodes, and susceptible people are blue. The large node in the middle of the diagram is a super-spreader, a person who connects with many others, and thus has more potential to spread the disease.

Documented Spreader Events
Graphic source: https://quillette.com/2020/04/23/covid-19-superspreader-events-in-28-countries-critical-patterns-and-lessons/

Timeline of events and symptom onsets, by day of investigation, in a cluster of COVID-19 likely transmitted at two family gatherings - Chicago, Illinois, February-March 2020


Video source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/14/us/coronavirus-updates.html
The farther the better

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Transmission Over Time


COVID-19 seasonality
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2767010

infectious disease transmission
Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-0869-5

a, Schematic of the relation between different time periods in the transmission of infectious disease. b, Human-to-human transmission pairs of SAR-CoV-2 virus (N=77). We assumed a maximum exposure window of 21 days prior to symptom onset of the secondary cases. Detailed information on the transmission pairs and the source of information is summarized in Supplementary Tables 2 and 3. c, Estimated serial interval distribution (top), inferred infectiousness profile (middle) and assumed incubation period (bottom) of COVID-19.

Viral shedding
Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-0869-5

Viral load (threshold cycle (Ct) values) detected by RT–PCR (PCR with reverse transcription) in throat swabs from patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 (N=94), overall and stratified by disease severity, sex, age group and link to Hubei province. The detection limit was Ct = 40, which was used to indicate negative samples. The thick lines show the trend in viral load, using smoothing splines. We added some noise to the data points to avoid overlaps.

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Air (Airborne)Transmission


Plane exposure NATGEO

  • Bus Spread
    Graphic source: https://twitter.com/tukkerloo/status/1237078414416281605

    Airborne Transmission
    Graphic source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016041202031254X?via%3Dihub

    Toilet physics
    Graphic source: https://cosmosmagazine.com/science/physics/heres-why-you-should-close-the-toilet-lid/

    Left: Vortex caused by common annular flushing. Right: Large-scale spread of virus particles after flushing. Credit: J-X Wang

    Closed Space transmission
    Graphic source: https://boston.cbslocal.com/2020/05/12/coronavirus-spread-restaurant-airflow-erin-bromage/

    Graphic shows how coronavirus spreads through air (Image credit University of Oregon)

    Where Not to Sit on the Plane
    Graphic source: https://api.nationalgeographic.com/distribution/public/amp/science/2020/01/how-coronavirus-spreads-on-a-plane

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    Hand Dryer Concerns


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    Fecal-Oral Transmission


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    Fomite (Contact) Transmission


    COVID on surfaces
    Graphic source: https://twitter.com/WebMD/status/1249276076146282496

    Fomite
    Graphic source: https://www.newyorker.com/science/elements/from-bats-to-human-lungs-the-evolution-of-a-coronavirus

    According to researchers at Rocky Mountain Laboratories, some viral particles remain viable up to four hours on copper, twenty-four hours on cardboard, and seventy-two hours on plastic and stainless steel, though the number of viable particles begins to decrease within minutes.

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    Person to Person (Droplet/Respiratory) Transmission


    Saliva chart
    Graphic source: https://cosmosmagazine.com/physics/when-you-cough-how-far-can-it-go

    Droplet Spread
    Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-20-545SP

    Subway spread
    Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-20-545SP

    Determining the necessary spacing for effective social distancing, such as for riders in a subway car, can affect the extent of disease transmission. The shaded circle (top) shows the number of people who could be directly infected by droplets from a sick person.

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    Sexual Transmission (Being investigated)



    Vertical Transmission


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    COVID-19 Testing


    Collection and Analysis of Testing Data


    Data Sources

    Data Analysis

    Mitigation vs. Suppression
    Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2020/06/30/883703403/as-coronavirus-surges-how-much-testing-does-your-state-need-to-subdue-the-virus


    Adequacy of Testing


    "The rate of positivity is an important indicator because it can provide insights into whether a community is conducting enough testing to find cases. If a community’s positivity is high, it suggests that that community may largely be testing the sickest patients and possibly missing milder or asymptomatic cases. A lower positivity may indicate that a community is including in its testing patients with milder or no symptoms. The WHO has said that in countries that have conducted extensive testing for COVID-19, would remain at 5% or lower for at least 14 days." (Source: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/testing/individual-states)

    Adequacy of Testing
    Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2020/06/30/883703403/as-coronavirus-surges-how-much-testing-does-your-state-need-to-subdue-the-virus


    Testing Basics



    Types of Testing


    Current Available Tests
    Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Business%20Functions/Risk/Our%20Insights/COVID%2019%20Implications%20for%20business/COVID%2019%20May%2027/COVID-19-Facts-and-Insights-June-1-vF.ashx

    Covid Test types
    Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-20-584SP


    Testing Strategy



    Timing of Testing


    Risk-based Testing
    Updated 5/11/2020 by Betty C. Jung. Posted on Twitter

    Risk-based Testing
    Created 3/20/2020 by Betty C. Jung. Posted on Twitter

    FDA Testing Priority
    Graphic source: https://twitter.com/FDAHealthEquity/status/1245036877515759619

    Testing intepretation
    Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2765837


    Molecular (CRISPR/Nucleic Acid/PCR) Testing



    Serologic (Antigen/Antibody) Testing



    Testing Integrity


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    Immunity


    Herd and No Herd Immunity
    Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/assets/710/707975.pdf

    Herd Immunity for several diseases
    Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/assets/710/707975.pdf

    Herd Immunity and COVID-19
    Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/05/28/upshot/coronavirus-herd-immunity.html

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    Vaccine Development


    Vaccine Development
    Graphic source: https://www.gatesnotes.com/Health/What-you-need-to-know-about-the-COVID-19-vaccine

    Vaccine Development
    Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-20-583SP

    Vaccine mechanisms
    Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-20-583SP

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    COVID-19 Testing Issues


    April 8, 2020 testing status
    Graphic source: https://twitter.com/BillKarins/status/1247848309114523648/photo/1

    COVID-19 Testing by Country
    Graphic source: https://nationalpostcom.files.wordpress.com/2020/04/na0407-covid-19-testing-by-country.png

    Inadequate Testing/Testing Capacity

    Laboratory Reporting

    Missed Testing

    Test Quality

    Test Strategy

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    General Prevention Measures


    Rule of thumb: If you can't remember the names of the people you spent time with in the past 5 days, at close distance (<6 feet), for more than 15 minutes, without wearing a mask, you have probably placed yourself at risk of contracting coronavirus.(Betty C. Jung) https://twitter.com/bettycjung/status/1276687102332358658

    Prevent The Spread: Remember the Three Cs @YouTube

    Protect yourself
    Graphic source: https://www.webmd.com/lung/coronavirus-transmission-overview

    Prevention measures
    Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/21882/chance-of-covid-19-transmission/

    VOX risk chart
    Graphic source: https://www.vox.com/2020/5/22/21266756/coronavirus-pandemic-covid-risks-social-distancing-chart

    Home with COVID

    wider health effects of lockdown
    Graphic source: https://www.bmj.com/content/369/8243

    March 2020
    Graphic source: https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2020/3/26/21192211/coronavirus-covid-19-social-distancing-end

    New normal
    Graphic source: https://content-design.statista.com/the-new-normal/

    When to call 911
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/if-you-are-sick/steps-when-sick.html

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    Consumer Information



    Disinfection


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    Face Masks, Face Shields & Respiratory Protection


    Importantly, uncovered emulated coughs were able to travel noticeably farther than the currently recommended 6-foot distancing guideline. Without a mask, droplets traveled more than 8 feet; with a bandana, they traveled 3 feet, 7 inches; with a folded cotton handkerchief, they traveled 1 foot, 3 inches; with the stitched quilting cotton mask, they traveled 2.5 inches; and with the cone-style mask, droplets traveled about 8 inches.

    When the mannequin was not fitted with a mask, they projected droplets much farther than the 6-foot distancing guidelines currently recommended by the CDC. The researchers observed droplets traveling up to 12 feet within approximately 50 seconds. Moreover, the tracer droplets remained suspended midair for up to three minutes in the quiescent environment. These observations, in combination with other recent studies, suggest that current social-distancing guidelines may need to be updated to account for aerosol-based transmission of pathogens. (Source: https://www.fau.edu/newsdesk/articles/efficacy-facemasks-coronavirus.php)

    HCP died of covid

    Queen masks

    Masks on everyone
    Graphic source: WebMD

    Thai babies with face masks
    Graphic source: https://time.com/5819527/babies-face-masks-thailand/

    hate wearing a mask

    Masked cat

    Pants and masks

    Masked bunnies

    Respiratory protection
    Graphic source: https://www.bmj.com/content/350/bmj.h694/infographic

    Face Mask States
    Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/21687/share-of-the-public-who-have-worn-a-face-mask-in-public/

    wearing a mask

    CDC face coverings

    Effective masks
    Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/21322/purpose-and-protective-effect-of-selected-face-masks/

    Face masks
    Graphic source: https://twitter.com/WebMD/status/1253904079224541184

    Do Don't Medical Masks

    Medical Masks

    Mask Exceptions

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    Handwashing


    When to wash hands
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/handwashing/when-how-handwashing.html

    WHO wash your hands


    Mental Health and Wellness


    Make a difference
    Graphic source: https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/how-you-can-make-difference-during-coronavirus-pandemic

    Model from Jean

    Loneliness

    Mental Wellness

    Back to Table of Contents


    Nutrition



    Sanitizers



    Self-care


    Back to Table of Contents


    Sexual Relationships


    COVID and safe sex
    Graphic source: @OHAOregon


    Sheltering in Place/Lockdowns/Quarantine


    Activity during lockdown
    Graphic source: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/06/200617194510.htm

    Self-care
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/downloads/10Things.pdf


    Social Distancing


    Owl social distancing


    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/large-events/considerations-for-events-gatherings.html

    Social Distancing
    Graphic: Medpage

    Earlier Controls
    Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/20/us/coronavirus-distancing-deaths.html


    Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/20/us/coronavirus-distancing-deaths.html

    Social distancing
    Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/21198/effect-of-social-distancing-signer-lab/


    Substance Use


    Back to Table of Contents


    Travel


    Travel Tips
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/travel-in-the-us.html

    Back to Table of Contents


    Public Health Management & Guidance


    Flatten the Curve
    Graphic source; Information is Beautiful

    Clinical Disaster Planning Framework
    Graphic source: https://emergency.cdc.gov/coca/ppt/2020/Final_COCA_Call_Slides_04_17_2020.pdf

    flowchart
    Graphic source: Initial Flowchart to Identify and Assess 2019 Novel Coronavirus (Historical) (https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/identify-assess-flowchart.htm Historical


    Agriculture Workers and Employers



    Airline Travel



    Community Mitigation


    Community Mitigation
    Graphic source: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/927860

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    Correctional and Detention Facilities


    Prisoncases
    Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/22029/number-of-covid-19-cases-in-the-following-locations/

    US prisons
    Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/21895/covid-in-prison-system/

    COVID-19 in Prisons
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6919e1.htm


    Cruise Ships



    Essential Workers



    Fitness Industry


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    Long-term Care & Skilled Nursing Facilities Guidance


    Long-term Care Facilities Data
    Graphic source: https://www.cms.gov/files/document/covid-nursing-home-reporting-numbers-5-31-20.pdf

    Assisted Living Facilities Deaths
    Graphic source: https://time.com/5843260/assisted-living-facilities-covid-19/


    Manufacturing. Mining and Meat Processing Plant Guidance


    Meat Processing infections
    Graphic source: https://twitter.com/CDCgov/status/1280551663938555910


    Mental Health Guidance



    Personal Care Services



    Restaurant Guidance


    Back to Table of Contents


    Schools & Colleges



    Youth-based Activities


    Back to Table of Contents


    Medical Management


    Treatment Guidelines


    JAMA guidelines
    Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2760782

    COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines (4/21/2020)

    Summary Recommendations
    Graphic source: https://covid19treatmentguidelines.nih.gov/overview/

    COVID19 Disease Progression
    Graphic source: https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2020/4/8/21207269/covid-19-coronavirus-risk-factors

    Back to Table of Contents


    Medical Management - General Information


    Caring for Critically Ill
    Graphic source: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/928177

    Remote Management
    Graphic source; https://www.bmj.com/content/368/bmj.m1182

    COVID-19 Primary Care
    Graphic source: https://www.bmj.com/coronavirus

    Ventilator Talking points
    Graphic source: What You Should Know Before You Need a Ventilator https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/04/opinion/coronavirus-ventilators.html

    COVID-19 therapeutics
    Graphic source: https://emergency.cdc.gov/coca/ppt/2020/Final_COCA_Call_Slides_04_17_2020.pdf

    Convalescent Plamsa
    Graphic source: https://emergency.cdc.gov/coca/ppt/2020/Final_COCA_Call_Slides_04_17_2020.pdf

    NYC nCoV management

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    Health Services


    Future of COVID-19 care
    Graphic source: https://emergency.cdc.gov/coca/ppt/2020/Final_COCA_Call_Slides_04_17_2020.pdf

    Back to Table of Contents


    Healthcare Provider Protection


    NYC DOH
    Graphic source: https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/doh/downloads/pdf/imm/covid-19-providers-dear-colleague-updates.pdf

    PPE
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/downloads/A_FS_HCP_COVID19_PPE.pdf

    N95 vs KN95 masks
    Graphic source: https://smartairfilters.com/en/blog/whats-the-difference-between-n95-and-kn95-masks/

    Back to Table of Contents


    General Medical Issues


    JAMA transmission, symptoms, complications
    Graphic source; https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2768391


    COVID-19 in Children



    COVID-19 in Young Adults



    Anticoagulation & Hematological Issues


    Anticoagulation tx
    Graphic source: https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiol.2020201629


    Cardiovascular Issues


    heart disease treatment with COVID-19
    Graphic source: https://www.onlinejacc.org/content/accj/early/2020/07/01/j.jacc.2020.06.068.full.pdf


    Drug Issues



    Endocrine System



    Immune System



    Kidney Dialysis and Renal Issues


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    Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children Associated with COVID-19 (MIS-C), previously known as Pediatric Multi-System Inflammatory Syndrome (PMIS, or MIS-C)


    MIS-C case Definition
    Graphic source: https://emergency.cdc.gov/han/2020/han00432.asp


    Neurological Issues



    Reproductive and Sexual Issues


    COVID-19 and pregnancy
    Graphic Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6925a1.htm

    Back to Table of Contents


    Respiratory and Lung Issues


    Pseudostratified epithelium of the trachea showing goblet and ciliate cells.(prime target)

    COVID target cells
    Graphic source:https://www.zmescience.com/science/cells-vulnerable-to-covid-identified-26243/

    Ventilation
    Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp2009575

    Back to Table of Contents


    Sequelae



    Stroke



    Thyroid Issues



    Vision Issues

    Back to Table of Contents


    Potential Treatments


    Candidate Therapies
    Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp2009575

    Convalescent Plasma

    Dexamethasone

    Hydroxychloroquine

    Remdesivir

    Other

    Back to Table of Contents


    Health Services Issues


    COVID and chronic disease medical care
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6925e2.htm

    COVID affect ER services
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6923e1.htm

    COVID-10 AMI
    Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc2015630

    Back to Table of Contents


    Background and Related Resources

    General Background Information


    Back to Table of Contents


    China - Initial COVID-19 Epicenter


    China covid spread
    Graphic source; https://www.bbc.com/news/world-51235105#

    nCoV
    Graphic source: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-51202000#

    Cases and Deaths nCoV
    Graphic source: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/feb/06/whistleblower-chinese-doctor-dies-from-coronavirus

    Case-fatality Rates
    Graphic source: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2020/02/life-inside-wuhan-coronavirus-quarantine/

    China Epicenter


    Why new diseases keep appearing in China

    Do not travel to China
    Graphic source: https://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/new-coronavirus-outbreak-declared-global-public-health-emergency-who-says-n1126836

    Back to Table of Contents


    Coronaviruses


    Outbreak Containment
    Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp2000929

    Coronavirus comparison
    Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/01/22/798277557/how-does-wuhan-coronavirus-compare-to-mers-sars-and-the-common-cold


    Graphic source: https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2020/01/21/china-coronavirus-outbreak-cdc-first-us-case-washington-state/4532063002/

    Back to Table of Contents


    Disinformation, Misinformation, Myths


    misinformation sources
    Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/21693/misinformation-on-covid-in-america/

    Back to Table of Contents


    History of Epidemics, Pandemics


    Economics and plagues
    Graphic source: https://science.sciencemag.org/content/368/6492/700


    Infectious Diseases

    Contagiousness
    Graphic source: http://www.vox.com/2016/4/19/11450396/zika-virus-contagious-ebola-measles

    Microbe Scope 2016
    Graphic source: http://www.informationisbeautiful.net/visualizations/the-microbescope-infectious-diseases-in-context/

    Microbe Scope 2014
    Graphic source: http://www.informationisbeautiful.net/visualizations/the-microbescope/

    Back to Table of Contents


    Reopening Issues


    Muted Recovery
    Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/risk/our-insights/covid-19-implications-for-business

    Reopening State status
    Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/22155/status-of-us-state-reopenings/

    Harris County, TX
    Graphic source: https://www.readyharris.org/Stay-Safe

    What you can do
    Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/world/coronavirus-maps.html#countries

    wrong direction
    Graphic source: https://www.medpagetoday.com/infectiousdisease/covid19/87362

    Back to Table of Contents


    Second Wave


    Government Response
    Graphic source: https://www.bmj.com/content/369/bmj.m1932

    Quarantine
    Graphic source:https://www.futurity.org/reopening-economy-public-health-covid-19-2366532-2/

    Back to Table of Contents


    Social Media


    Facebook and COVID-19
    Graphic source: https://www.journalism.org/2020/06/24/as-covid-19-emerged-in-u-s-facebook-posts-about-it-appeared-in-a-wide-range-of-public-pages-groups/

    Facebook and COVID-19
    Graphic source: https://www.journalism.org/2020/06/24/as-covid-19-emerged-in-u-s-facebook-posts-about-it-appeared-in-a-wide-range-of-public-pages-groups/

    Facebook volume March 2020
    Graphic source: https://www.journalism.org/2020/06/24/as-covid-19-emerged-in-u-s-facebook-posts-about-it-appeared-in-a-wide-range-of-public-pages-groups/

    Facebook types of websites
    Graphic source: https://www.journalism.org/2020/06/24/news-organizations-were-most-prominent-source-in-covid-19-content-shared-in-public-facebook-spaces/

    Back to Table of Contents


    Strategic Planning for Reopening the U.S.

    Back to Table of Contents


    Unintended Consequences & Unforeseen Issues


    Video source: https://twitter.com/bettycjung/status/1253938448811077632

    Calculated trends in geophysical PM2.5 values from 1998-2018. Warm colours indicate positive trends and cool colours negative trends. The opacity of the colours indicates the statistical significance of the trends. Credit: Martin Lab

    COVID and climate effects
    Map source: https://cosmosmagazine.com/earth/earth-sciences/global-pollution-mapped-for-good-and-bad/

    Carbon emissions drop

    normal returns
    Graphic source: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/146741/nitrogen-dioxide-levels-rebound-in-china

    normal returns
    Graphic source: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/146741/nitrogen-dioxide-levels-rebound-in-china

    normal returns
    Graphic source: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/146741/nitrogen-dioxide-levels-rebound-in-china

    CO2 declines
    Graphic source: https://www.washingtonpost.com/climate-environment/2020/05/19/greenhouse-emissions-coronavirus/

    Wuhan Cleaner air
    Graphic source: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/146362/airborne-nitrogen-dioxide-plummets-over-china

    Cleaner air in 3 months
    Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/21495/no2-in-the-air-selected-cities/

    Clearer Air
    Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/21424/no2-concentration-selected-cities/

    Wuhan Clean Air
    Graphic source: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/146362/airborne-nitrogen-dioxide-plummets-over-china

    India emissions down
    Graphic source: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/146596/airborne-particle-levels-plummet-in-northern-india

    Emissions down

    Tickets

    Stay at home festival

    Behavioral & Health Changes

    Education Changes

    Environmental Changes

    Back to Table of Contents

    Health Services Changes

    Nature Changes

    Societal Changes

    Technological Changes

    • More than half of Twitter's Reopen America calls from bots, study finds. Fear is a familiar political weapon, and it appears to be just as effective as it's always been. 6/2020

      • https://tools.cdc.gov/medialibrary/index.aspx#/media/id/403627


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        Updated: 7/13/2020 R5,134
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