https://www.bettycjung.net/COVID-19.htm

COVID-19

Coronovirus
Graphic source: https://www.wowt.com/content/news/CDC-updates-on-coronavirus-workers-seek-to-prevent-outbreak-pandemic-568081961.html

COVID-19 AKA 2019 Novel Coronavirus; 2019-nCoV
Internet Resources

COVID-19 webpage QR Code

Scan and save this Webpage to your mobile device!

Betty C. Jung logo


A - L M - Z



Suggested Citation: Jung, B.C. (2020-2022). COVID-19 Internet Resources.
Web document: https://www.bettycjung.net/COVID-19.htm


Mission: To provide a one-stop Web resource page with factual information about the COVID-19 Pandemic

According to PEW , social media users share COVID-19 information mostly from news sources (74%) and very little from health and science resources (1%). This could mean that people do not know where to look for credible science-based information about COVID-19.

On June 18, 2020, JAMA reported "Coronavirus disease 2019-related knowledge and behaviors were associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. African American participants, men, and people younger than 55 years were less likely to know how the disease is spread, were less likely to know the symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019, and left the home more often."

Furthermore, the prevalence of Coronavirus myths addressed by the World Health Organization indicates that there is much disinformation and misinformation on the Internet about the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

Therefore, I have decided to create this resource page for those interested in learning more about the pandemic. It is my hope, as Master Certified Health Education Specialist (MCHES®), that you will be able get the credible information you need here to make the decisions you have to make to deal with the pandemic in your life. I am dedicated to keeping this page updated with vetted sources, and welcome your feedback. (July 6, 2020)


Comments, suggestions, dead link reports:


Table of Content (Major sections)


COVID-19 Pandemic


CDC has three numbers you should consider to know if you've been exposed to the coronavirus: If you've been within six feet of an infected person for at least 15 minutes starting from 48 hours before the infected person began feeling sick, you are considered to have been in close contact with the virus. (Source: https://bestlifeonline.com/exposed-to-coronavirus/)

Pandemic, endemic, epidemic
Graphic source: What Is a #Pandemic? https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2726986

A build-up of 21st century forces resulting in illness

COVID, 5 years in the making
Graphic source: https://www.bmj.com/content/373/bmj.n657

Back to Table of Contents


Public Health Technical Reports


Back to Table of Contents

Back to Table of Contents


COVID-19 Research Information


Back to Table of Contents


COVID-19 Databases, Registries, Repositories


Back to Table of Contents


CDC & Other Federal Agency Guidance


CDC Guidance

Back to Table of Contents


Public Health Issues


US had more cases in reopening
Graphic source; NY Times

July 8, 2020 Not Ready for Reopening
Graphic source; https://www.vox.com/2020/5/28/21270515/coronavirus-covid-reopen-economy-social-distancing-states-map-data

ICU capacity
Graphic source; https://www.vox.com/2020/5/28/21270515/coronavirus-covid-reopen-economy-social-distancing-states-map-data

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Epidemiology of COVID-19


Infectious Disease Models


Outbreak Models
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-20-582SP

COVID model
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-20-582SP


COVID-19 Virology


Virus concepts
Graphic source: https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/22586816/next-coronavirus-variant-delta-covid-19

Viral Taxonomy 1
Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-020-0709-x.pdf

Viral Taxonomy 2
Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-020-0709-x.pdf

Adding new viruses to taxonomies
Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-021-01749-7

Virus Realms
Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-021-01749-7

Covid realm
Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-021-01749-7

Virology COVID-19
Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-020-0695-z


COVID-19 Metrics


7-day average
Graphic source: https://www.propublica.org/article/how-to-understand-covid-19-numbers

5 percent positivity rate
Graphic source: https://www.propublica.org/article/how-to-understand-covid-19-numbers

Death rate
Graphic source: https://www.propublica.org/article/how-to-understand-covid-19-numbers

4 measures
Graphic source: https://www.propublica.org/article/how-to-understand-covid-19-numbers

COVID risk levels
Graphic source: https://globalepidemics.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/key_metrics_and_indicators_v4.pdf

COVID Risk level and type of control
Graphic source: https://globalepidemics.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/key_metrics_and_indicators_v4.pdf

Contact Tracing
Graphic source: https://globalepidemics.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/key_metrics_and_indicators_v4.pdf

Contact Tracing and Testing
Graphic source: https://globalepidemics.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/key_metrics_and_indicators_v4.pdf

Contact Tracing
Graphic source: https://globalepidemics.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/key_metrics_and_indicators_v4.pdf

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COVID-19 Dust Surveillance



COVID-19 Genomic Surveillance



COVID-19 Hotspot Surveillance


4th Surge US Hotspots, July 19, 2021
Graphic source: TIME

Viral Load Surveillance
Graphic source: https://directorsblog.nih.gov/2021/06/24/new-metric-identifies-coronavirus-hotspots-in-real-time/

Viral Load Surveillance
Graphic source: https://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2021/06/02/science.abh0635

Viral Load Surveillance
Graphic source: https://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2021/06/02/science.abh0635

Viral Load Surveillance
Graphic source: https://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2021/06/02/science.abh0635

Viral Load Surveillance
Graphic source: https://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2021/06/02/science.abh0635

March 9, 2021 Hotspots
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/world/coronavirus-maps.html

Hotspot Surveillance
Graphic source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877584520300320

Hotspot Surveillance Over Time
Graphic source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877584520300320


COVID-19 Wastewater Surveillance


Covid Italy 2019
Graphic source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969720352402?via%3Dihub

Wastewater Surveillance GAO.gov
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/gao-22-105841

ID early outbreaks
Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/gao-22-105841

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COVID-19 Outbreak


Delta variant transmission
Graphic source: https://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/covid-cases-deaths-rising-u-s-cdc-warns-pandemic-unvaccinated-n1274161

June 1, 2021 Hotspots
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/world/covid-cases.html

March 9, 2021 Per capital
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/world/coronavirus-maps.html

November 7, 2020
Graphic source: https://www.vox.com/2020/11/8/21550345/50-million-confirmed-cases-covid-19-worldwide

US Wave
Graphic source: https://www.vox.com/2020/11/8/21550345/50-million-confirmed-cases-covid-19-worldwide

Epidemic curve of daily cases of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Hong Kong by symptom onset date and colored by cluster category (n=1,038).
From: Clustering and superspreading potential of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Hong Kong

Hong Kong Cluster Outbreak
Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-1092-0/figures/1

US early spread
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6922e1.htm

Timeline Comparing the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreaks

SARS and COVID-19 Timeline
Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762130

Comparison SARS and nCoV
Graphic Source: NY Times Graphic, via @FelicityCarus #MackayIM

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COVID-19 Outbreak Trends


How COVID-19 Has Shifted Over Time

COVID-19  global trend
Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/03/30/822491838/coronavirus-world-map-tracking-the-spread-of-the-outbreak

What Previous Covid-19 Waves Tell Us About the Virus Now (October, 2021)

US Wave Trends
Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/10/23/us/covid-surges.html

July-August 2021 - Delta Variant Running Rampant in the U.S.

July-August 2021
Graphic source: CNN

US trajectory
Graphic source: https://www.usatoday.com/in-depth/graphics/2020/03/10/us-coronavirus-map-tracking-united-states-outbreak/4945223002/

Covid shift over time
Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/03/30/822491838/coronavirus-world-map-tracking-the-spread-of-the-outbreak

One month - Delta variant, July 15, 2021
Map source: CDC

Video source: https://www.vox.com/future-perfect/21353986/coronavirus-covid-pandemic-usa-america-maps-charts-data

July 7, 2021 July 7, 2021
Graphic source: https://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/coronavirus-map-confirmed-cases-2020-n1120686

July 7, 201
July 7, 2021
Graphic source: https://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/coronavirus-map-confirmed-cases-2020-n1120686


Dec 31, 2020 outbreak trends
Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/03/30/822491838/coronavirus-world-map-tracking-the-spread-of-the-outbreak

Global Deaths
Graphic source: https://www.cnn.com/2020/09/28/health/coronavirus-million-global-deaths-intl/index.html

US COVID-19 changing demographics
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6939e1.htm

US COVID-19 changing demographics
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6939e1.htm

Covid September 2, 2020
Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/20651/locations-by-number-of-confirmed-wuhan-coronavirus-cases/

Country responses early on
Graphic source: https://www.brookings.edu/2020/04/02/the-early-days-of-a-global-pandemic-a-timeline-of-covid-19-spread-and-government-interventions/

COVID-19 history
Graphic source; https://twitter.com/bettycjung/status/1282357711703887872

American Nations
Graphic source: https://www.pressherald.com/2020/07/05/how-the-geography-of-the-pandemic-is-determined-by-centuries-old-regional-differences/

US COVID-19 trends
Graphic source: https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2020/06/18/trump-claims-coronavirus-pandemic-is-ending-data-experts-disagree/

Disease progression
Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Business%20Functions/Risk/Our%20Insights/COVID%2019%20Implications%20for%20business/COVID%2019%20May%2027/COVID-19-Facts-and-Insights-June-1-vF.ashx

Percentage of emergency department (ED) visits for COVID-19-like illness (CLI), in 14 counties (three in California and Washington [A]; four in Illinois, Louisiana, Massachusetts, and Michigan [B]; and seven in New York [C]) -National Syndromic Surveillance System, February 1-April 7, 2020

U.S. coronavirus outbreak
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6922e1.htm

Outbreak Pace
Graphic source: https://www.cnbc.com/2020/05/21/global-coronavirus-cases-surpass-5-million-johns-hopkins-data-shows.html

countries in danger
Graphic source: https://twitter.com/EricTopol/status/1260659915816792064

How to beat covid
Graphic source: https://twitter.com/yaneerbaryam/status/1256769252369072134

Estimated Prevalence
Graphic source: https://www.webmd.com/lung/news/20200424/more-data-bolsters-higher-covid-prevalence

April 17, 2020 stats February 24, 2020 stats

Shifting Global Burden March 11, 2020
Graphic source: https://www.wsj.com/articles/u-s-coronavirus-cases-top-1-000-11583917794

Hotspots
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6933e2.htm

FIGURE 1. Number of COVID-19 hotspot alerts, by county and number of days* meeting hotspot criteria for (A) March 8-April 30, (B) May 1-31, (C) June 1-July 15, and (D) entire period - United States, March 8-July 15, 2020

Hotspot Maps
Map source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6933e2.htm

FIGURE 2. Daily number of COVID-19 hotspot alerts, by urbanicity, and 7-day average of new reported cases - United States, March 8-July 15, 2020

Hotspots Urbanicity
Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6933e2.htm

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The Search for Patient Zero


First documented case (11/17/2019)

Patient Zero Nov 17, 2019
Map Source: https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1009620


Continual search for Patient Zero - Worobey's Research

Where samples positive for the coronavirus were found in Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in January 2020

Where samples positive for the coronavirus were found in Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in January 2020
Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2022/03/03/1083751272/striking-new-evidence-points-to-seafood-market-in-wuhan-as-pandemic-origin-point

Mapping the first reported cases of COVID-19 in Wuhan

Mapping the first reported cases of COVID-19 in Wuhan
Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2022/03/03/1083751272/striking-new-evidence-points-to-seafood-market-in-wuhan-as-pandemic-origin-point

Researchers detected more SARS-CoV-2 in the environment around specific live animal sellers at the Huanan Wholesale Seafood Market in Wuhan, China. Worobey et al./Zenodo.org

The stall and map
Map source: https://www.vox.com/22961822/covid-19-origin-coronavirus-wuhan-china-market-lab-leak

Worobey - Huanan Market

Huanan Market
Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2022/03/03/1083751272/striking-new-evidence-points-to-seafood-market-in-wuhan-as-pandemic-origin-point

Worobey - First Reported Cases

First Reported Cases
Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2022/03/03/1083751272/striking-new-evidence-points-to-seafood-market-in-wuhan-as-pandemic-origin-point

Worobey's Timeline for initial human contact

Patient Zero Timeline
Graphic source: https://twitter.com/angie_rasmussen/status/1497692666997329923

Worobey's Spillovers

Zoonotic Origins of COVID-19
Graphic source: https://zenodo.org/record/6299116#.YhpLBi9h06w

Worobey's summary graphics


Video source: https://twitter.com/MichaelWorobey/status/1497607357722808322

December 2019 Cases
Graphic source: https://twitter.com/danwalker9999/status/1461591621749772292

Wuhan December cases
Map source: https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2021/07/19/1016005828/new-data-leads-to-rethinking-once-more-where-the-pandemic-actually-began


Continual search for Patient Zero - Other Leads


Maximum likelihood phylogeny of the early SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, showing nucleotide reversions and putative candidates for the ancestral haplotype at the most common recent ancestor (MRCA).

Maximum likelihood phylogeny of the early SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, showing nucleotide reversions and putative candidates for the ancestral haplotype at the most common recent ancestor (MRCA).">
<BR><FONT SIZE=1> Graphic source: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abp8337 </FONT SIZE>
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<P>
<UL>
<LI><B><A HREF="https://www.livescience.com/sars-cov-2-origins-7-things.html"> 7 facts about the origin of the novel coronavirus </A>7/2021 </B></LI>
 <LI><B><A HREF="https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/23/us/coronavirus-early-cases.html"> Amid Signs Coronavirus Came Earlier, Americans Ask: Did I Already Have It? </A> 4/2020 </B></LI>
<LI><B><A HREF="https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2020-04-21/autopsies-reveal-first-confirmed-u-s-coronavirus-deaths-occurred-in-bay-area-in-early-february"> Autopsies reveal first confirmed U.S. coronavirus deaths occurred in California in February </A> 4/2020 </B></LI>
<LI><B><A HREF="https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/white-house/biden-asks-intelligence-community-redouble-efforts-determine-origins-covid-19-n1268657"> Biden asks intelligence community to 5/2021

  • C.D.C. Confirms First Possible Community Transmission of Coronavirus in U.S. - A case in California may be the first infection without a known link to travel abroad. 3/2020
  • China refused to provide WHO team with raw data on early COVID cases, team member says 2/2021
  • China to test thousands of Wuhan blood samples in Covid-19 probe 10/2021
  • Coronavirus Was In U.S. Weeks Earlier Than Previously Known, Study Says 12/2020
  • COVID-19 Appeared in Boy in Italy in November 2019 12/2020
  • Dissecting the early COVID-19 cases in Wuhan 11/2021
  • Explainer: The WHO's theories about the origins of COVID-19 after Wuhan probe 2/2021
  • First Known Covid Case Was Vendor at Wuhan Market, Scientist Claims. A new review of early Covid-19 cases in the journal Science will revive, though certainly not settle, the debate over how the pandemic began. 11/2021 NY Times
  • G7 leaders will call for fresh WHO inquiry into Covid origins, leaked communique suggests 6/2021
  • Intel agencies scour reams of genetic data from Wuhan lab in Covid origins hunt 8/2021
  • Intelligence on Sick Staff at Wuhan Lab Fuels Debate on Covid-19 Origin. Report says researchers went to hospital in November 2019, shortly before confirmed outbreak; adds to calls for probe of whether virus escaped lab 5/2021
  • Investigate the origins of COVID-19 5/2021
  • Leading scientist says that without a full investigation of lab leak theory, the world will face 'covid-26 and covid-32' 6/2021
  • New Data Leads To Rethinking (Once More) Where The Pandemic Actually Began 7/2021
  • NIH researchers find more evidence Covid was circulating in the US in December 2019 6/2021
  • Novel Coronavirus Circulated Undetected Months before First COVID-19 Cases in Wuhan, China. Study dates emergence to as early as October 2019; simulations suggest in most cases zoonotic viruses die out naturally before causing a pandemic 3/2021
  • Recovery of deleted deep sequencing data sheds more light on the early Wuhan SARS-CoV-2 epidemic 6/2021
  • Search Continues for COVID Patient Zero 7/2021
  • Serologic Testing of US Blood Donations to Identify Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-Reactive Antibodies: December 2019–January 2020 6/2021
  • The coronavirus may have reached Los Angeles even before China announced its outbreak 9/2020
  • 1st U.S. coronavirus death was weeks earlier than initially believed Two previously unreported cases from February in California appear to be the nation's first confirmed deaths from COVID-19. 4/2020
  • Coronavirus: France's first known case was in December 5/2020 BBC.com
  • France Discovers Undiagnosed Coronavirus Patient From Last Year 5/2020
  • French Doctors Find COVID-19 Case From December - A Month Before 1st Known Case There 5/2020
  • From Wuhan to Paris to Milan, the search for 'patient zero' 7/2021
  • Inside the Global Quest to Trace the Origins of COVID-19 and Predict Where It Will Go Next Time 7/2020
  • Newly published evidence points to Wuhan seafood market as pandemic origin point 7/2022
  • New Report Says Coronavirus May Have Made Early Appearance in France 5/2020
  • New York area's 'patient zero' says coronavirus 'wasn't on my mind' when he got sick 5/2020
  • 'Patient zero': The misunderstood stories of how disease spreads 11/2016
  • Study Suggests Coronavirus Emerged Much Earlier Than Thought. Some Are Skeptical. 6/2020
  • The Legal Stakes of a Lab Leak - China could be on the hook for a trillion dollars, but the U.S. isn't blameless 6/2021
  • The molecular epidemiology of multiple zoonotic origins of SARS-CoV-2 7/2022
  • The Mysterious Case of the COVID-19 Lab-Leak Theory 10/2021
  • The Occam's Razor Argument Has Not Shifted in Favor of a Lab Leak 7/2021. Proponents of the theory that COVID-19 originated as a result of work performed at the Wuhan Institute of Virology keep repeating the same misinformation.
  • The Origins of SARS-CoV-2: A Critical Review Pre-print 8/2021
  • The Origins of SARS-CoV-2: A Critical Review Peer-reviewed 8/2021
  • The science around the lab leak theory hasn't changed. But here's why some scientists have. Five virologists said few conclusions can be drawn based on the available scientific evidence, but they noted that the context and circumstances of the debate have changed. 6/2021
  • Top U.S. health official calls for 'transparent' new probe into origins of pandemic. The comments come after a U.S. intelligence report said lab workers in Wuhan, China, fell ill in November 2019, before the first cases were reported. 5/2021
  • Trump's gone, but China, U.S. still at odds over WHO Covid report. "It's kind of disappointing that it's come to controversy already - the report is not even out," one of the members of the WHO-led team said.
  • Unclassified Summary of Assessment on COVID-19 Origins DNI.gov 9/2021
  • U.S. intel officials divided over whether Covid came from China lab accident. One U.S. agency says with moderate confidence the virus infected humans after a lab incident, but four others say with low confidence it emerged naturally. 8/2021
  • U.S. intel report identified 3 Wuhan lab researchers who fell ill in November 2019 5/2021 The details add to circumstantial evidence supporting a theory Covid-19 spread to humans after escaping from a lab. But the evidence is far from conclusive.
  • U.S. still hasn't ruled out lab accident origin for Covid because China hasn't been transparent. U.S. officials haven't shown any evidence pointing to a lab escape, and scientists call the scenario unlikely. The U.S. wants China to share information. 2/2021
  • When Did the Coronavirus Arrive in the U.S.? Here's a Review of the Evidence. 5/2020
  • WHO in Wuhan is probing Covid's origins as politics hangs over mission. "The objective of the investigation is not to designate a guilty country," one expert said. "But we also have to be realistic: This is a very politicized world." 1/2021
  • Why it's so tricky to trace the origin of COVID-19. A 90-day investigation into the source of SARS-CoV-2 has shown consensus that the virus was not engineered. But many other elements remain a mystery. 9/2021
  • Why it will soon be too late to find out where COVID-19 originated. Time is running out to identify the source of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak 20 months ago 8/2021
  • Will we ever find COVID-19's 'Patient Zero?' A lack of transparency on the virus' early days makes for an uphill battle. 7/2021
  • Back to Table of Contents


    Zoonotic Origins


    Spillovers

    Viral Sharing
    Graphic source: https://gumc.georgetown.edu/news-release/new-study-finds-climate-change-could-spark-the-next-pandemic/#

    Relationship of bat coronaviruses to SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2.

    Bat origins
    Graphic source: https://www.niaid.nih.gov/diseases-conditions/coronavirus-bat-research

    Comparison of the nucleotide sequence identity of indicated coronaviruses to SARS-CoV-2.

    Comparisons
    Graphic source: https://www.niaid.nih.gov/diseases-conditions/coronavirus-bat-research

    Emerging infections
    Graphic source: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/who-convened-global-study-of-originI>


    Back to Table of Contents


    COVID-19 in Animals


    COVID-19 in deer
    Graphic source: https://www.pnas.org/content/119/6/e2121644119

    WHO - COVID-19 in animals
    Graphic source: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/who-convened-global-study-of-origins-of-sars-cov-2-china-part-annexes.pdf

    WHO Animal spillover
    Graphic source: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/who-convened-global-study-of-origins-of-sars-cov-2-china-part-annexes.pdf

    Susceptible animals
    Graphic source: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/who-convened-global-study-of-origins-of-sars-cov-2-china-part-annexes.pdf

    Animals and COVID-19
    Old World primates and great apes have identical amino acids at the binding site to humans and are predicted to be at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. (Infographic by Matt Verdolivo/UC Davis)
    Graphic source: https://www.ucdavis.edu/news/genomic-analysis-reveals-many-animal-species-may-be-vulnerable-sars-cov-2-infection

    Covid in animals
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6923e3.htm

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    Genomic Sequencing Characteristics


    "Experts' recommendations on how many cases should be sequenced vary, but many say sequencing around 5 percent of cases would begin to adequately show the spread of variants circulating at low levels." (https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/03/06/us/coronavirus-variant-sequencing.html)

    Identifying Variants
    Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-021-03698-7

    Genomic sequencing
    Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/gao-21-426sp

    NYC Covid strain
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6928a5.htm

    COVID19 genome
    Graphic source: https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/06/09/2008176117

    COVID19 genome
    Graphic source: https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/06/09/2008176117

    Sar2 genome
    Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/30/science/coronavirus-mutations.html

    Key Coronavirus proteins
    Graphic source: Nature Briefing

    COVID structure
    Graphic source; https://www.zmescience.com/science/cells-infected-coronavirus-95362/


    Video source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/22/us/coronavirus-sequencing.html

    Blood Type

    Blood Type and Covid
    Graphic source: https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/932333

    Blood type and covid
    Graphic source: https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/932333

    Blood type and positive COVID test
    Graphic source: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/935827

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    Genomics

    SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes the disease COVID-19, is a big viral family with many variants. Just like with a human family tree, the distance between two variants shows roughly how related they are. This illustration is inspired by the SARS-CoV-2 phylogenetic tree generated by Emma Hodcroft of Nextstrain.org and the University of Bern. Kat Hubbs for NPR

    Genomic Tree
    Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2022/02/09/1047616658/take-a-look-at-sars-cov-2s-family-tree-its-full-of-surprises

    A SARS-CoV-2 genetic family tree diagram, generated from data and diagrams created by Nextstrain.org and modified by epidemiologist Emma Hodcroft But

    Genomic tree
    Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2022/02/09/1047616658/take-a-look-at-sars-cov-2s-family-tree-its-full-of-surprises

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    Genetic Mutations; COVID-19 Variants

    2022 US variants
    Graphic source: https://twitter.com/DrWilliamKu/status/1547016992707723264

    Variants
    Graphic source: https://www.nibib.nih.gov/news-events/newsroom/nih-funded-project-offers-efficient-approach-when-tracking-sars-cov-2-variants

    Coronavirus mutations March 29, 2022
    Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2022/03/28/opinion/coronavirus-mutation-future.html

    Virus Mutations Explained

    Video Source: https://twitter.com/CDCgov/status/1484254407365738505

    As of November 25, 2021

    COVID-19 Variants
    Graphic source: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-10242493/Is-Botswana-variant-sudden-Covid-surge-South-Africa.html

    Variants Renamed
    Graphic source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/sarscov2-variants-renamed-101622507347899.html

    Variants
    Graphic source: https://informationisbeautiful.net/visualizations/covid-19-coronavirus-infographic-datapack/

    Hostile Takeovers
    Graphic source: https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2021/08/new-sars-cov-2-variants-have-changed-pandemic-what-will-virus-do-next

    Delta Variant vs. Ancestor
    Graphic source: NY Times, via F. Perry Wilson, Methods Man

    Variant Prevalence
    Graphic source: Our World in Data

    Variants of Concern
    Graphic source: https://www.who.int/en/activities/tracking-SARS-CoV-2-variants/

    Variants of Interest
    Graphic source: https://www.who.int/en/activities/tracking-SARS-CoV-2-variants/

    Variants
    Graphic source: https://cosmosmagazine.com/health/medicine/new-variants-on-the-rise/#science

    COVID-19 Variants and mutations
    Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/health/coronavirus-variant-tracker.html

    COVID-19 variants
    Graphic source: https://www.webmd.com/lung/news/20210324/variants-of-variants-seen-in-covid-ravaged-brazil

    US COVID19 variants
    Graphic source: https://usafacts.org/articles/1-in-6-americans-are-fully-vaccinated-and-4-more-new-things-about-covid-19/

    US - UK variants
    Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7003e2.htm

    US - UK variants
    Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7003e2.htm

    US - UK variants
    Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7003e2.htm

    March 9, 2021 US Variants
    Graphic source: https://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/map-track-spread-covid-19-variants-across-united-states-n1256131 March 9, 2021

    Minnesota Variant
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7008e1.htm

    Variants and Strains
    Graphic source: https://cosmosmagazine.com/health/medicine/mutations-variants-and-strains/

    New Variants
    Graphic source: https://cov-lineages.org/global_report.html

    Variant B1.1.7
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7003e2.htm

    COVID-19 Variant reported by Japan, January 11, 2021

    Japan variant
    Graphic source: https://www.niid.go.jp/niid/ja/diseases/ka/corona-virus/2019-ncov/10107-covid19-33.html

    JAMA - COVID variants
    Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2775006

    B117 variant
    Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/21/health/new-covid-strain-uk.html

    Tracking mutations
    Graphic source: https://time.com/5870481/coronavirus-origins/


    Specific Variants

    Variant progression

    Map of COVID-19 Delta variant spread
    Graphic source: https://www.cnbc.com/2021/08/09/covid-epidemiologist-larry-brilliant-on-delta-variant-vaccinations.html

    Delta Variant
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7032e2.htm

    CDC Delta Variant
    Graphic source: https://twitter.com/CDCgov/status/1422286839457665031

    Variants of Concern
    Graphic source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ha6yUxze1vk&t=3s

    The numerals in this illustration show the main mutation sites of the delta variant of the coronavirus, which is likely the most contagious version. Here, the virus's spike protein (red) binds to a receptor on a human cell (blue). [Juan Gaertner/Science Source]

    Delta Variant
    Graphic source;https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2021/07/08/1013794996/why-the-delta-variant-is-so-contagious-a-new-study-sheds-light

    B2.75 (Centaurus) (June 2022 - India)

    BA.4; BA.5

    BA4 BA5
    Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-022-01240-x

    Omicron XE Variant (=BA.1 + BA.2)

    BA2.12; BA2.12.1

    B.1.640.2; BA.2, Stealth Variant

    Delmicron; Deltacron

    Omicron (AKA Botswana Variant; BA.1 ) (December 2021)

    Omicron doubling time
    Graphic Source: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(21)02758-6/fulltext

    Immune evasion
    https://www.economist.com/graphic-detail/2021/12/11/early-data-on-omicron-show-surging-cases-but-milder-symptoms

    Delta and Omicron Variants
    Graphic source: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/omicron-covid-variant-mutations-image-b1965780.html

    Omicron variant
    Graphic source: https://www.standardmedia00 Alt=".co.ke/explainers/article/2001430674/how-south-african-scientists-spotted-the-omicron-covid-variant

    Omicron Variant
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7050e1.htm

    Omicron mutations
    Graphic source: https://www.ft.com/content/42c5ff3d-e676-4076-9b9f-7243a00cba5e

    Delta Variant

    Delta vs original
    Graphic source: https://www.visualcapitalist.com/how-does-the-covid-delta-variant-compare/

    Delta Variant
    Graphic source: mm7035e2_DeltaOutbreakCASchool.jpg

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    Case Definition


    3 stages of covid
    Graphic source: https://www.ccjm.org/content/early/2020/12/01/ccjm.87a.ccc066

    COVID-19 Framework
    Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2773338

    WHO case definition
    Graphic source: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/927860

    Flu vs Covid
    Graphic source: PriMed

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    Contact Tracing


    Contact Tracing

    Contact Tracing

    Contact Tracing
    Graphic source for 3: https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/public-sector/our-insights/contact-tracing-for-covid-19-new-considerations-for-its-practical-application

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    Disease Distribution


    SARS-CoV-2 introductions to U.S. and Europe. Credit: Modified from Worobey M, Science, 2020. (Source: 9/22/2020 NIH Director's Blog)

    China to US

    Percentage of people in communities across the United States infected by the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19 as of December 2020. Credit: Pei S, Nature, 2021.

    Americans Infected
    Graphic source: https://directorsblog.nih.gov/2021/09/07/covid-19-infected-many-more-americans-in-2020-than-official-tallies-show/

    Child Cases
    Graphic source: https://www.webmd.com/lung/news/20210824/covid-cases-in-children-soar

    COVID-19 demographics
    Graphic source: https://mma.prnewswire.com/media/1533546/A_Detailed_Study_of_Patients_with_Long_Haul_COVID__An_Analysis_of_Private_Health.pdf?p=pdf

    COVID-19
    Graphic source: https://mma.prnewswire.com/media/1533546/A_Detailed_Study_of_Patients_with_Long_Haul_COVID__An_Analysis_of_Private_Health.pdf?p=pdf

    COVID-19 Reaction Type
    Graphic source: https://mma.prnewswire.com/media/1533546/A_Detailed_Study_of_Patients_with_Long_Haul_COVID__An_Analysis_of_Private_Health.pdf?p=pdf

    COVID-19 Reaction Type, by Age group
    Graphic source: https://mma.prnewswire.com/media/1533546/A_Detailed_Study_of_Patients_with_Long_Haul_COVID__An_Analysis_of_Private_Health.pdf?p=pdf

    COVID-19 Reaction Type over time
    Graphic source: https://mma.prnewswire.com/media/1533546/A_Detailed_Study_of_Patients_with_Long_Haul_COVID__An_Analysis_of_Private_Health.pdf?p=pdf

    one in five infected
    Graphic source: https://www.economist.com/graphic-detail/2020/12/10/almost-one-in-five-americans-may-have-been-infected-with-covid-19

    18-22 Covid Surveillance
    Graphic Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6939e4.htm

    18-22 COVID testing
    Graphic Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6939e4.htm

    18-22 Race Ethnicity with COVID
    Graphic Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6939e4.htm

    Rise in COVID-19 kids
    Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/08/31/us/coronavirus-cases-children.html

    COVID-19 incidence among school-aged children aged 5-11 years (N = 101,503) and 12-17 years (N = 175,782), by week - United States, March 1-September 19, 2020

    COVID-19 and kids
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6939e2.htm

    Percentage of SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests with positive results and test volume, by week for school-aged children aged 5-11 years and 12-17 years - United States, May 3-September 19, 2020

    COVID-19 testing and kids
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6939e2.htm

    California cases
    Graphic source: https://www.mercurynews.com/2020/06/16/age-of-covid-19-cases-dropping-in-california/

    Cases by agegroups
    Graphic source; https://www.statista.com/chart/21173/hospitalization-icu-admission-and-fatality-rates-for-reported-coronavirus-cases/

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    Disease Process


    frhb

    Spike Proteins
    Graphic source: https://www.nih.gov/news-events/nih-research-matters/understanding-sars-cov-2-antibody-binding

    The Process of How SARS-CoV-2 Infects the Host

    How Sars2 infects cells
    Graphic source: https://www.acrobiosystems.com/A1213-The-Process-of-How-SARS-CoV-2-Infects-the-Host.html

    Prognostic Factors for progression
    Graphic source: https://media.primeinc.org/upload/programs/54BQ2021/Assessing%20COVID-19%20Disease%20Severity%20and%20Identifying%20Risk%20Factors%20for%20Disease%20Progression.pdf

    HIV latent infections
    Graphic source: https://earthsky.org/human-world/does-coronavirus-linger-in-body-immune-system-covid

    COVID pathophysiology
    Graphic source: https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiol.2020201629

    immunogenesis
    Graphic source; https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2768391

    ACE2 is the target for the novel coronavirus

    ACE2
    Graphic source: https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-alzheimers-disease/jad200581


    Graphic source: https://hms.harvard.edu/news/how-covid-19-causes-loss-smell

    NeuroCovid Stages

    Neurocovid states
    Graphic source: https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-alzheimers-disease/jad200581

    Scheme of the effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in obese individuals.

    Obesity disease process
    Graphic source: https://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(20)30477-8/fulltext

    How Coronavirus Infects People
    Graphic source: https://www.livescience.com/covid-19-superspreader-singing.html (Image credit: Nicholas Forder)

    AGE WELL: On average, as this chart reveals, chronic diseases increase with aging, which makes the elderly more susceptible to COVID-19. This deadly combination is a stark reminder, again, of doing our best to stay healthy.

    Age and comorbidities
    Graphic course: http://nautil.us/issue/84/outbreak/how-covid_19-picks-on-the-weakened. Aging and the Epidemiology of Multi-morbidity

    Co-infection

    Reinfection

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    Disease Severity


    Disease Severity
    Graphic source: https://media.primeinc.org/upload/programs/54BQ2021/Assessing%20COVID-19%20Disease%20Severity%20and%20Identifying%20Risk%20Factors%20for%20Disease%20Progression.pdf

    Vulnerable Populations

    Vulnerable Populations
    Graphic source: https://www.webmd.com/lung/news/20200602/vulnerable-groups-weigh-risks-as-country-reopens

    Mild or Moderate Covid-19
    Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp2009249

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    Disease Statistics


    PEW US. Deaths
    Graphic source: https://www.pewresearch.org/politics/2022/03/03/the-changing-political-geography-of-covid-19-over-the-last-two-years/

    PEW US deaths by population type
    Graphic source: https://www.pewresearch.org/politics/2022/03/03/the-changing-political-geography-of-covid-19-over-the-last-two-years/

    PEW Deaths and Political leaning
    Graphic source: https://www.pewresearch.org/politics/2022/03/03/the-changing-political-geography-of-covid-19-over-the-last-two-years/

    PEW Deaths and party affiliation
    Graphic source: https://www.pewresearch.org/politics/2022/03/03/the-changing-political-geography-of-covid-19-over-the-last-two-years/

    Epidemic Curve of the Confirmed Cases of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
    Chinese CDC Report 2/24/2020 JAMA
    Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762130

    US cases
    Graphic source: statista.com/chart/21547/cumulative-covid-19-cases-in-the-us/

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    Hospitalization Statistics


    Pediatric Hospitalizations
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/71/wr/mm7111e2.htm

    At-risk
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/71/wr/mm7106e2.htm

    January 22, 2022
    How stressed are the hospitals, January 22, 2022
    Map source: https://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/hospital-icu-stress-level-tracker-n1287375

    Excess Mortality during COVID Pandemic
    Graphic source: https://cdn.mdedge.com/files/s3fs-public/JHM01607_Sabbatini15370721e.PDF

    ICU Maxxed out   September 13, 2021
    Map source: https://finance.yahoo.com/news/delta-variant-unvaccinated-and-vaccinated-people-are-not-in-the-same-ballpark-in-terms-of-risk-141843308.html

    Pediatric Vaccination
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7036e2.htm

    Children COVID-19 Hospitalizations
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7036e1.htm

    Hospitalization characteristics
    Graphic source: https://media.primeinc.org/upload/programs/54BQ2021/Assessing%20COVID-19%20Disease%20Severity%20and%20Identifying%20Risk%20Factors%20for%20Disease%20Progression.pdf

    Teen COVID hospitalizations Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7023e1.htm

    Hospitalizations by Race/Ethnicity
    Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/reports/GAO-21-191/#Highlights

    Hospital Readmissions
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6945e2.htm

    Covid race/ethnicity data

    Hospitalizations, underlying conditions
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6924e2.htm

    Hospitalizations by Age
    Graphic source: https://time.com/5867751/bars-covid/

    Medicare hospitalizations by race
    Graphic source: https://www.kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/slide/in-medicare-black-and-hispanic-individuals-account-for-disproportionate-share-of-covid-19-cases-and-hospitalizations/

    COVID-19 admissions by race and ethnicity
    Graphic source: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/931633

    Age and Hospitalizations
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/older-adults.html

    US COVID-19 hospitalizations
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6925e1.htm

    Hospitalization and comorbidity
    Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/22018/coronavirus-pre-existing-conditions/

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    Life Expectancy


    IMG SRC="BG2021/NCHS-COVID-lifeexpectancy.jpg" width=800 Alt="COVID shortens life expectancy">
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/vsrr/vsrr015-508.pdf

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    Potential Life Lost


    PYLL
    Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid-19-pandemic-related-excess-mortality-and-potential-years-of-life-lost-in-the-u-s-and-peer-countries/

    PYLL-Disparities
    Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid-19-pandemic-related-excess-mortality-and-potential-years-of-life-lost-in-the-u-s-and-peer-countries/

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    Prevalence Statistics


    Percentage of people in communities across the United States infected by the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19 as of December 2020. Credit: Pei S, Nature, 2021.

    Americans Infected
    Graphic source: https://directorsblog.nih.gov/2021/09/07/covid-19-infected-many-more-americans-in-2020-than-official-tallies-show/

    Daily new confirmed COVID-19 cases per million people, Dec 9, 2020 The number of confirmed cases is lower than the number of actual cases; the main reason for that is limited testing.

    New cases per 1 million
    Graphic source: https://ourworldindata.org/coronavirus-data-explorer?tab=map&zoomToSelection=true&country=GBR~USA~ESP~ITA~BRA~IND~KOR®ion=World&casesMetric=true&interval=daily&hideControls=true&perCapita=true&smoothing=0&pickerMetric=location&pickerSort=asc

    Model-based estimates of U.S. prevalence (A) and number (B) of adults aged ≥18 years with any selected underlying medical condition, by county United States, 2018

    County Prevalence
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6929a1.htm

    Point prevalence COVID-19
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6929e1.htm

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    Death Statistics


    &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

    COVID 3rd
    Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2794043

    Top 5 COVID 3rd
    Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2794043

    May 15, 2022 - 1 million US deaths
    Graphic source: May 15, 2022 New York Times Cover
    NYC Epicenter
    Graphic source: https://www.statnews.com/2022/05/10/the-five-pandemics-driving-1-million-u-s-covid-deaths/

    Pandemic 1 - less deadly overtime
    Graphic source: https://www.statnews.com/2022/05/10/the-five-pandemics-driving-1-million-u-s-covid-deaths/


    Graphic source: https://www.statnews.com/2022/05/10/the-five-pandemics-driving-1-million-u-s-covid-deaths/

    Younger and older deaths
    Graphic source: https://www.statnews.com/2022/05/10/the-five-pandemics-driving-1-million-u-s-covid-deaths/

    Vaccine status
    Graphic source: https://www.statnews.com/2022/05/10/the-five-pandemics-driving-1-million-u-s-covid-deaths/

    Hospital deaths have lowered over time
    Graphic source: https://www.statnews.com/2022/05/10/the-five-pandemics-driving-1-million-u-s-covid-deaths/

    Rural deaths higher
    Graphic source: https://www.statnews.com/2022/05/10/the-five-pandemics-driving-1-million-u-s-covid-deaths/

    More city vaccinations
    Graphic source: https://www.statnews.com/2022/05/10/the-five-pandemics-driving-1-million-u-s-covid-deaths/

    Rich and poor countries and COVID-19
    Graphic source: https://www.statnews.com/2022/05/10/the-five-pandemics-driving-1-million-u-s-covid-deaths/

    COVID in top 3
    Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid-19-leading-cause-of-death-ranking/

    COVID top cause of death for 45-84 yos
    Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid-19-leading-cause-of-death-ranking/

    Covid more than cancer deaths
    Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid-19-leading-cause-of-death-ranking/

    COVID-19 number 3 in 2021
    Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid-19-continues-to-be-a-leading-cause-of-death-in-the-u-s-in-august-2021/

    2020-2021
    Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid-19-continues-to-be-a-leading-cause-of-death-in-the-u-s-in-august-2021/

    3rd leading cause of death
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7014e1.htm

    July 2021 - Covid deaths by race & ethnicity
    Graphic source: https://usafacts.org/articles/summer-covid-19-cases-and-deaths-in-five-charts/

    July 2021 Covid deaths by age groups
    Graphic source: https://usafacts.org/articles/summer-covid-19-cases-and-deaths-in-five-charts/

    July 2021 Covid deaths
    Graphic source: https://usafacts.org/articles/summer-covid-19-cases-and-deaths-in-five-charts/

    COVID-19 deaths
    Graphic source: https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2021/06/16/americans-lost-more-years-of-life-to-covid-19-in-2020-than-to-all-accidents-combined-in-a-typical-year/

    COVID-19 deaths
    Graphic source: https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2021/06/16/americans-lost-more-years-of-life-to-covid-19-in-2020-than-to-all-accidents-combined-in-a-typical-year/

    Who's dying
    Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/06/16/world/covid-vaccine-coronavirus-mask

    June 16, 2021 - US - 600,000 deaths from COVID-19 US death pace
    Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/06/16/world/covid-vaccine-coronavirus-mask

    JAMA leading causes of death
    Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2778234

    MMWR 4/2021
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7014e1.htm

    2020 deaths
    Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/coronavirus-leading-through-the-crisis/charting-the-path-to-the-next-normal/in-2020-covid-19-deaths-were-eight-times-greater-than-a-typical-flu-season

    U.S. on Sunday, February 21, 2021, hit the half-a-million mark for the number of lives claimed by Covid-19. Every dot on our 500,000 lives lost map represents a person who has died from the virus in the U.S., beginning with the first reported death on Feb. 29, 2020. @NBCNews

    Feb 2021, 1/2 million dead
    Graphic source: Washington Post Coronavirus Update

    Death by Race, Ethnicity
    Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/reports/GAO-21-191/#Highlights

    Covid deaths, race/ethnicity, agegroups
    Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/reports/GAO-21-191/#Highlights

    Excess deaths
    Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2771761

    Excess Deaths
    Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/reports/GAO-20-708/

    COVID-10 3rd leading cause of death
    Graphic source: https://twitter.com/bettycjung/status/1286716769441320960

    COVID-19 deaths, including probable deaths
    Graphic source: https://www.axios.com/axios-ipsos-coronavirus-week-8-5a1947d5-9850-4e58-9583-9b617e6fdc1b.html

    Rapid Mortality Surveillance
    Graphic source: https://www.theigc.org/blog/why-we-dont-know-the-real-number-of-covid-19-deaths-in-africa/


    Vaccination Efficacy


    Vaccination most effective
    Graphic source: https://www.pewresearch.org/science/2022/07/07/americans-reflect-on-nations-covid-19-response/

    Vax vs non-vax
    Graphic source: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-to-compare-covid-deaths-for-vaccinated-and-unvaccinated-people/

    Vax vs non-vax
    Graphic source: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-to-compare-covid-deaths-for-vaccinated-and-unvaccinated-people/

    Vax vs non-vax
    Graphic source: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-to-compare-covid-deaths-for-vaccinated-and-unvaccinated-people/

    Preventable Deaths
    Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2022/05/13/1098071284/this-is-how-many-lives-could-have-been-saved-with-covid-vaccinations-in-each-sta

    Preventable Deahts
    Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2022/05/13/1098071284/this-is-how-many-lives-could-have-been-saved-with-covid-vaccinations-in-each-sta

    Death of Unvaccinated
    Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid19-and-other-leading-causes-of-death-in-the-us/

    Deaths - vac and unvac
    Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid19-and-other-leading-causes-of-death-in-the-us/

    Unvaccinated children hospitalizations
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/71/wr/mm7116e1.htm

    Booster Vaccine Efficacy
    Graphic source: https://www.statnews.com/2022/04/06/tracking-fda-advisory-panel-meeting-covid-19-vaccines-boosters/

    Booster Vaccine Efficacy  CDC
    Graphic source: https://www.statnews.com/2022/04/06/tracking-fda-advisory-panel-meeting-covid-19-vaccines-boosters/

    Omicron and Vaccination status
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/71/wr/mm7112e2.htm

    Vaccination Status
    Graphic source: https://ourworldindata.org/covid-deaths-by-vaccination

    Vaccination Status, 2022
    Graphic source: https://ourworldindata.org/covid-deaths-by-vaccination

    Age-adjusted rolling 14-day SARS-CoV-2 cumulative incidence (A) and hospitalization rates (B), by vaccination status - Los Angeles County, California, November 7, 2021-January 8, 2022

    CA vax vs. unvaxxed
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/71/wr/mm7105e1.htm

    Age-adjusted rolling 14-day SARS-CoV-2–associated incidence rate ratios* (A) and hospitalization rate ratios (B), by vaccination status - Los Angeles County, California, November 7, 2021-January 8, 2022

    CA vax vs. vaxxed
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/71/wr/mm7105e1.htm

    Death by Vaccination Status
    Graphic source: January 31, 2022 NY TImes

    Vaccine Status, Political Affiliation
    Graphic source: January 31, 2022 NY TImes

    Vax vs unvaxxed
    Graphic source: https://www.vox.com/22894978/covid-19-vaccine-lives-saved-deaths-avoided-omicron-chart

    Vaccine Booster vs. hospitalizations
    Graphic source: https://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/booster-shots-effective-severe-illness-omicron-rcna13038

    Vaccinated and Unvaccinated vs Variants
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/71/wr/mm7104e2.htm

    Vaccine booster efficacy
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/71/wr/mm7104e2.htm

    Cost of Unvaccinated Hospitalizations
    Graphic source: https://twitter.com/bettycjung/status/1482900702313820165

    Time - NY hospitalizations

    Variants and Vaccine Protection
    Graphic source: https://informationisbeautiful.net/visualizations/covid-19-coronavirus-infographic-datapack/

    Vaccination and MIS-C
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/71/wr/mm7102e1.htm

    Breakthrough hospitalizations
    Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/characteristics-of-vaccinated-patients-hospitalized-with-covid-19-breakthrough-infections/

    Shorter hospitalizations for vaccinated
    Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/characteristics-of-vaccinated-patients-hospitalized-with-covid-19-breakthrough-infections/

    Intermountain stats
    Graphic source: https://www.heraldextra.com/news/local/2021/dec/01/intermountain-official-warns-of-continued-protective-measures-vaccination-due-to-omicron/

    Unvaccinated
    Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/26159/covid-cases-us-age-group-vaccination-status/

    Vaccinations reduce hospitalizations
    Graphic source: https://twitter.com/CDCgov/status/1464277862328979465

    Natural vs Vaccine Immunity
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/

    Vax vs Unvax
    Graphic source: October 28, 2021 NY Times COVID Briefing

    Vaccines are safe
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7043e2.htm

    Vaccine Efficacy
    Graphic source: https://www.medpagetoday.com/special-reports/exclusives/95119

    Vaccines reduce deaths and hospitalizations
    Graphic source: https://ctnewsjunkie.com/2021/10/06/study-says-vaccinations-prevented-death-in-connecticut/

    unvaccinated hospitalizations
    Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/unvaccinated-covid-patients-cost-the-u-s-health-system-billions-of-dollars/

    CHA Unvaccinated Vaccinations
    Graphic source: https://ctnewsjunkie.com/2021/09/03/a-high-price-hospital-association-assesses-cost-of-care-for-unvaccinated/

    Vaccine Efficacy
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7037e1.htm

    July 2021 Covid deaths by vaccination status
    Graphic source: https://usafacts.org/articles/summer-covid-19-cases-and-deaths-in-five-charts/

    Vaccinations and deaths
    Graphic source: July 19, 2021 New York Times

    Vaccine Effectiveness
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7023e2.htm

    unvaccinated hospitalizations
    Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/unvaccinated-covid-patients-cost-the-u-s-health-system-billions-of-dollars/

    Back to Table of Contents


    Statistics Issues


    COVID-19 Test Reporting

    COVID-19 Vaccination Reporting

    Back to Table of Contents

    Data Reporting

    Back to Table of Contents

    Death Statistics Issues

    Death estimates
    Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-022-01245-6

    Comparing Pandemics
    Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-022-00104-8

    Global Toll
    Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-022-00104-8

    WHO report
    Graphic source: https://twitter.com/WHO/status/1522195970825535488/photo/1

    WHO Report
    Graphic source: https://twitter.com/WHO/status/1522210454113714176/photo/1

    BBC
    Graphic source: https://www.bbc.com/news/health-61327778

    BBC
    Graphic source: https://www.bbc.com/news/health-61327778

    BBC
    Graphic source: https://www.bbc.com/news/health-61327778

    Figure 2Global distribution of estimated excess mortality rate due to the COVID-19 pandemic, for the cumulative period 2020–21

    Excess Mortality
    Map source: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(21)02796-3/fulltext

    Figure 4Global distribution of the ratio between estimated excess mortality rate due to the COVID-19 pandemic and reported COVID-19 mortality rate, for the cumulative period 2020–21

    Excess Mortality
    Map source: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(21)02796-3/fulltext

    Excess Deaths
    Graphic source: https://twitter.com/MaxCRoser/status/1434228604666368007/photo/1

    The Economist journalists updated their a model of the true death toll of the pandemic, corrected for underreporting. They come to the conclusion that 15.2 million have died, more than 3-times the official toll of 4.6m. This map shows the distribution of the death rate.

    Hospitalization Data Issues

    Incomplete/Missing Demographics and Variables, Reporting

    Poor quality COVID-19 child data
    Graphic source: https://www.covkidproject.org/state-report-card

    Manipulation of Data Reporting

    FL DOH reporting
    Graphic source: https://www.miamiherald.com/news/coronavirus/article253796898.html

    FL death trend reporting
    Graphic source: https://www.miamiherald.com/news/coronavirus/article253796898.html

    Back to Table of Contents

    Prevalence Data

    Probable Cases/Excess Deaths

    Excess Deaths
    Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-022-00104-8

    2020 Excess Deaths
    Graphic source: https://www.vox.com/future-perfect/21539483/covid-19-black-death-plagues-in-history

    Visual Abstract. Impact of Population Growth and Aging on Excess U.S. Deaths During COVID-19
    Estimates of excess mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic provide an important metric for quantifying deaths due to COVID-19 as well as those indirectly caused by it. This study updates recent estimates for excess mortality by accounting for the aging of the population.

    Excess Mortality, Age factors
    Graphic source: https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/10.7326/M20-7385

    Excess Deaths and racial disparities
    Graphic source: https://www.kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/slide/during-pandemic-higher-premature-excess-deaths-in-u-s-compared-to-peer-countries-partly-driven-by-racial-disparities/

    Excess Mortality
    Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid-19-pandemic-related-excess-mortality-and-potential-years-of-life-lost-in-the-u-s-and-peer-countries/

    Excess Mortality
    Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid-19-pandemic-related-excess-mortality-and-potential-years-of-life-lost-in-the-u-s-and-peer-countries/

    Excess Mortality
    Graphic source: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/covid-19-pandemic-related-excess-mortality-and-potential-years-of-life-lost-in-the-u-s-and-peer-countries/

    JAMA Excess Deaths
    Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2778361

    Excess Death Charts
    Graphic source: https://www.economist.com/graphic-detail/2020/07/15/tracking-covid-19-excess-deaths-across-countries

    Undercounting

    Africa undercounting Graphic source: https://www.bmj.com/content/372/bmj.n334

    Actual New Cases
    Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2021/02/06/964527835/why-the-pandemic-is-10-times-worse-than-you-think

    Actively infectious
    Graphic source: https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2021/02/06/964527835/why-the-pandemic-is-10-times-worse-than-you-think

    < P>

    Vaccination Reporting

    Back to Table of Contents


    COVID-19 Risk Factors


    Risk factors for severe COVID-19 among persons who completed a primary COVID-19 vaccination series - 465 health care facilities, United States, December 2020-October 2021 (MMWR)

    vaccinated risk factors
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/71/wr/mm7101a4.htm

    Risk Factors (Enlarged)

    vaccinated risk factors

    Risk Factors
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/clinical-care/underlyingconditions.html

    Number of risk factors
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/clinical-care/underlyingconditions.html

    Riskiest Activities
    Graphic source: https://informationisbeautiful.net/visualizations/covid-19-coronavirus-infographic-datapack/

    COVID Comorbidities
    Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/2020-year-in-review/a-tale-of-2020-in-20-mckinsey-charts

    COVID Mortality Predictors
    Graphic source: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/941521

    Risk factors
    Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/22365/prevalence-of-underlying-conditions-in-us-adults/

    Know your risks
    Graphic source: Texas Medical Association

    Age COVID risk factor
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/older-adults.html

    Risk factors
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/people-with-medical-conditions.html

    Possible Risk factors
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/people-with-medical-conditions.html

    High Risk Factors
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/downloads/COVID19-What-You-Can-Do-High-Risk.pdf

    Risk Factors
    Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp2009249

    Cardiovascular

    Cancer

    Demographics

    Race and burden
    Graphic source: https://www.cnn.com/2020/08/20/us/systemic-racism-coronavirus-pandemic-trnd/index.html"

    Deaths by Race, per 100,000
    Graphic source: https://www.apmresearchlab.org/covid/deaths-by-race

    Deaths by race
    Graphic source: https://www.apmresearchlab.org/covid/deaths-by-race

    Diabetes

    Covid and Diabetes
    Graphic source: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00125-021-05458-8

    Covid-19 causes Type 1 diabetes
    Graphic source: https://abcnews.go.com/Health/covid-19-virus-diabetes-studies-find/story

    COVID-19 and Diabetes
    Graphic source: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00125-021-05458-8

    Drugs

    Environmental Factors

    Genetic Mutations

    Health Behaviors

    Hypertension

    Immune System

    Liver Disease

    Maternal/Child Health Issues

    Mental Illness

    Metabolic Syndrome

    Nutrition

    Obesity

    risk factors - obesity, hypertension, diabetes
    Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2770542

    Obesity risk factors
    Graphic source: https://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(20)30477-8/fulltext

    Clinical manifestations and mechanisms for COVID-19 risk in individuals with obesity

    Obesity and COVID-19
    Graphic source: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/obr.13128

    Phenotypes

    Other Factors

    Back to Table of Contents


    COVID-19 Incubation Period


    Nature: Estimated that the incubation period for COVID-19 before the onset of symptoms was 5.2 days. Viral loads for COVID-19 were highest shortly after the onset of symptoms and then gradually decreased toward the detection limit by day 21. Sex, age, and disease severity did not substantially affect these findings.

    The authors estimated that infectiousness of COVID-19 began 2.3 days before the onset of symptoms and peaked at 0.7 days after symptom onset. They further estimated that up to 44% of cases of COVID-19 could be a result of viral transmission before the onset of symptoms. Source: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/932932 (6/2020)

    Incubation Period
    Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp2009575

    Back to Table of Contents


    COVID-19 Symptoms


    Symptom prevalence, duration, and risk of hospital admission in individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 during periods of omicron and delta variant dominance: a prospective observational study from the ZOE COVID Study

    Symptoms - Omicron and Delta
    Graphic source: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(22)00327-0/fulltext

    Symptom-based COVID types
    Graphic source: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-types/symptom-tracker-app-reveals-six-distinct-types-of-covid-19-infection-idUSKCN24I1YI

    Hispanic and non-Hispanic COVID-19 symptoms
    Graphic source; https://salud-america.org/coronavirus-case-rates-and-death-rates-for-latinos-in-the-united-states/

    Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of previous or current SARS-CoV-2 infection, by individual symptoms among service members reporting at least one symptom (n = 284) — USS Theodore Roosevelt, April 2020 (June 2020)

    Navy symptoms
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6923e4.htm

    CDC Signs and symptoms
    Graphic source: https://int.nyt.com/data/documenthelper/6926-mayhhsbriefing/af7319f4a55fd0ce5dc9/optimized/full.pdf#page=1

    Updated CDC COVID-19 symptom list (4/27/2020)

    CDC COVID-19 symptom list April 27, 2020
    Graphic source: https://heavy.com/news/2020/04/early-symptoms-coronavirus-covid-19/

    Symptoms

    General

    Dermatological Manifestations

    Hearing Loss

    Loss of Smell

    Loss of Smell
    Graphic source: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00210#

    Psychiatric Symptoms

    Tooth Loss

    Back to Table of Contents


    COVID-19 Transmission


    Transmission Routes


    Video source: https://twitter.com/CDCgov/status/1484277054162055175

    Transmission Chains
    Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-1092-0/figures/2

    SARS-CoV-2 introductions to U.S. and Europe. Credit: Modified from Worobey M, Science, 2020.

    Transmission Routes
    Graphic source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32912998/

    Transmission by stage of infection
    Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp2009249

    Current Sites of COVID-19 cases

    COVID-19 cases
    Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2767010

    Potential Sites for future COVID-19 cases

    COVID-19 potential second wave cases
    Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2767010


    Reproduction Number


    "To determine when an outbreak had been contained, scientists look at case counts and determine the reproduction number, a measurement that shows how many people will be infected by one infectious person. If the reproduction number drops below 1, scientists consider the outbreak contained." (Source: https://news.utexas.edu/2020/06/01/for-each-days-delay-in-social-distancing-a-covid-19-outbreak-lasts-days-longer/)

    Omicron infectiousness
    Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/healthcare-systems-and-services/our-insights/when-will-the-covid-19-pandemic-end?cid=other-eml-alt-mip-mck

    RO
    Graphic source: https://www.visualcapitalist.com/history-of-pandemics-deadliest/

    R naught, variants, herd immunity threshold
    Graphic source: @fperrywilson

    COVID infectiousness
    Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/risk/our-insights/covid-19-implications-for-business

    R-naught - the theory R-naught - the reality of superspreaders
    R naught Superspreaders

    Source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/22/well/live/coronavirus-pandemic-memorial-day-picnics-bbqs.html


    Graphic source: https://www.cnn.com/2020/10/06/health/flu-covid-19-deaths-comparison-trnd/index.html

    College superspreader event
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6926e1.htm

    superspreader Ro
    Graphic source: https://www.zdnet.com/article/google-researchers-show-how-covid-19-super-spreaders-are-a-big-part-of-the-problem/">

    Reich and colleagues show that even for the same "R," transmission rate, on average, infections can rise faster with a higher "gamma," the measure of how many "degrees" of contacts a person in the society has -- the super-spreaders.

    Reproduction Number
    Graphic source: https://cosmosmagazine.com/biology/measuring-different-responses-to-covid-19

    Disease Contagiousness
    Graphic source; https://www.vox.com/2020/1/28/21079946/coronavirus-china-wuhan-deaths-pandemic

    R effective
    Graphic source: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2020/05/coronavirus-how-to-measure-your-nation-response-cvd/"

    Back to Table of Contents


    Asymptomatic/Pre-symptomatic (Silent Spreader/Stealth) Transmission


    Germany Asymptomatic Transmission
    Graphic source: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc2001468

    Asymptomatic transmission
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6923e4.htm

    Back to Table of Contents


    Superspreader Events (SSEs)


    Unmasked airborne spread
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7035e2.htm

    High Mixers
    Graphic source: https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/coronavirus-leading-through-the-crisis/charting-the-path-to-the-next-normal/people-who-see-people-how-high-mixers-help-spread-covid-19

    US superspreader events
    Graphic source: https://public.tableau.com/profile/betsy.ladyzhets#!/vizhome/superspreadingevents/DashSuperspreadingeventsmap

    Covid-19 superspreader - Motorcycle Rally
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6947e1.htm

    Distribution of COVID-19 cases (N = 177) linked to a rural wedding reception, by date of onset or test - Maine, August 7–September 14, 2020

    Maine Wedding Epi Map
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6945a5.htm

    Maine Wedding
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6945a5.htm

    Superspreaders
    Graphic source: https://news.mit.edu/2020/super-spreading-covid-transmission-1102

    Hockey game superspreader
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6941a4.htm

    Transmission chains and attack rates in three COVID-19 child care facility outbreaks, Salt Lake County, Utah, April 1-July 10, 2020

    Childcare superspreader
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6937e3.htm

    Airborne Transmission
    Graphic source: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8094933/How-one-man-spread-coronavirus-NINE-people-bus.html

    China Restaurant
    Graphic source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/20/health/airflow-coronavirus-restaurants.html

    Chinese Restaurant transmission

    Funeral community transmission
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6915e1.htm

    Funeral community transmission

    CDC - Korean Call Center - Blue = infected with COVID-19

    CDC-Korean Caller Center
    Graphic source: https://www.vox.com/21262268/coronavirus-tips-covid-social-distancing-harm-reduction

    Church spread
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6920e2.htm

    Austria superspreader
    Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/21699/coronavirus-outbreak-in-ischgl/"

    Korea superspreader
    Graphic source: https://www.statista.com/chart/21697/contact-tracing-response-seoul-south-korea-covid-19/

    Superspreaders
    Graphic source: https://www.zdnet.com/article/google-researchers-show-how-covid-19-super-spreaders-are-a-big-part-of-the-problem/

    Reich and colleagues construct graphs of people in their various states of infection and the like among people, to simulate how COVID-19 spreads. Caption from the article: "Contact tracing. Some share of the neighbors of a node which tests positive are traced and tested themselves." Reich et al. 2020

    Superspreaders
    Graphic source: https://cosmosmagazine.com/biology/how-social-distancing-flattens-the-curve-of-coronavirus

    This graph shows how an epidemic might spread across a network over time. Blue dots are susceptible individuals, while red dots are infected people. Two dots are connected by a line if they are in contact with each other, and the more contacts a person has, the bigger their dot is on the network. Author provided

    Infected people are red nodes, and susceptible people are blue. The large node in the middle of the diagram is a super-spreader, a person who connects with many others, and thus has more potential to spread the disease.

    Documented Spreader Events
    Graphic source: https://quillette.com/2020/04/23/covid-19-superspreader-events-in-28-countries-critical-patterns-and-lessons/

    Timeline of events and symptom onsets, by day of investigation, in a cluster of COVID-19 likely transmitted at two family gatherings - Chicago, Illinois, February-March 2020


    Video source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/14/us/coronavirus-updates.html
    The farther the better

    Back to Table of Contents


    Transmission Factors


    COVID-19 transmission
    Graphic source: https://www.bmj.com/content/375/bmj-2021-065312

    Transmission Factors
    Graphic source: https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid/ciaa1442/5910315

    Viral Load Dynamics
    Graphic source: https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid/ciaa1442/5910315

    COVID-19 seasonality
    Graphic source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2767010

    infectious disease transmission
    Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-0869-5

    a, Schematic of the relation between different time periods in the transmission of infectious disease. b, Human-to-human transmission pairs of SAR-CoV-2 virus (N=77). We assumed a maximum exposure window of 21 days prior to symptom onset of the secondary cases. Detailed information on the transmission pairs and the source of information is summarized in Supplementary Tables 2 and 3. c, Estimated serial interval distribution (top), inferred infectiousness profile (middle) and assumed incubation period (bottom) of COVID-19.

    Viral shedding
    Graphic source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-0869-5

    Viral load (threshold cycle (Ct) values) detected by RT-PCR (PCR with reverse transcription) in throat swabs from patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 (N=94), overall and stratified by disease severity, sex, age group and link to Hubei province. The detection limit was Ct40, which was used to indicate negative samples. The thick lines show the trend in viral load, using smoothing splines. We added some noise to the data points to avoid overlaps.

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    Air (Airborne)Transmission


    COVID is airborne

    Infected after 5 minutes, from 20 feet away: South Korea study shows coronavirus’ spread indoors

    Evolution of a Cough
    Airborne 
Transmission
    Graphic source: https://www.mcgill.ca/newsroom/channels/news/covid-19-without-masks-two-metres-distancing-not-enough-333819

    Evolution of a cough with mask
    Using a Mask
    Graphic source: https://www.mcgill.ca/newsroom/channels/news/covid-19-without-masks-two-metres-distancing-not-enough-333819

    Airborne Transmission
    Graphic source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i7e8t-Rzv0I

    Chorister- airborne transmission
    Graphic source: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/27/6/21-0465-f2

    Korea Study, infected 20 feet away
    Graphic source: https://www.latimes.com/world-nation/story/2020-12-09/five-minutes-from-20-feet-away-south-korean-study-shows-perils-of-indoor-dining-for-covid-19

    Mask and Transmission
    Graphic source: @ncdhhs

    Aerosol Infection Risk
    Graphic source: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2020/08/how-to-measure-risk-airborne-coronavirus-your-office-classroom-bus-ride-cvd/

    Aerosol Infection Risk
    Graphic source: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2020/08/how-to-measure-risk-airborne-coronavirus-your-office-classroom-bus-ride-cvd/

    Plane exposure NATGEO

  • Bus Spread
    Graphic source: https://twitter.com/tukkerloo/status/1237078414416281605

    Airborne Transmission
    Graphic source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016041202031254X?via%3Dihub

    Toilet physics
    Graphic source: https://cosmosmagazine.com/science/physics/heres-why-you-should-close-the-toilet-lid/

    Left: Vortex caused by common annular flushing. Right: Large-scale spread of virus particles after flushing. Credit: J-X Wang

    Closed Space transmission
    Graphic source: https://boston.cbslocal.com/2020/05/12/coronavirus-spread-restaurant-airflow-erin-bromage/

    Graphic shows how coronavirus spreads through air (Image credit University of Oregon)

    Where Not to Sit on the Plane
    Graphic source: https://api.nationalgeographic.com/distribution/public/amp/science/2020/01/how-coronavirus-spreads-on-a-plane

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    Hand Dryer Concerns


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    Fecal-Oral Transmission


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    Fomite (Contact) Transmission


    COVID on surfaces
    Graphic source: https://twitter.com/WebMD/status/1249276076146282496

    Fomite
    Graphic source: https://www.newyorker.com/science/elements/from-bats-to-human-lungs-the-evolution-of-a-coronavirus

    According to researchers at Rocky Mountain Laboratories, some viral particles remain viable up to four hours on copper, twenty-four hours on cardboard, and seventy-two hours on plastic and stainless steel, though the number of viable particles begins to decrease within minutes.


    Household Transmission


    Household Transmission
    Graphic source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/71/wr/mm7109e1.htm

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    Person to Person (Droplet/Respiratory; Saliva) Transmission


    (A) Schlieren image (visualization using light refraction caused by differences in air density) of a human cough, and (B) flash photo of a human sneeze

    Droplet spread
    Graphic source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK143281/

    Saliva chart
    Graphic source: https://cosmosmagazine.com/physics/when-you-cough-how-far-can-it-go

    Droplet Spread
    Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-20-545SP

    Subway spread
    Graphic source: https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-20-545SP

    Determining the necessary spacing for effective social distancing, such as for riders in a subway car, can affect the extent of disease transmission. The shaded circle (top) shows the number of people who could be directly infected by droplets from a sick person.

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    Sexual Transmission (Being investigated)



    Vertical Transmission



    Zoonotic Transmission


    Deer to Man Transmission
    Graphic source: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.02.22.481551v1


    Other Forms of Reported Transmission


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    https://tools.cdc.gov/medialibrary/index.aspx#/media/id/403627

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    PUBLISHED ON THE WEB: March 30, 2020
    Updated: 8/15/2022 R13,720
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