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January - June 2016

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Suggested Citation: Jung, B.C. (2016 - 2023). Betty C. Jung's 2016 Public Health Blog (January - June).
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January - June July - December

  • June 30, 2016 - June is Alzheimer's and Brain Awareness Month

    Alzheimers and Brain Awareness Month
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see Alzheimer's Disease and Senior Health

  • June 29, 2016 - June is National Safety Month

    National Safety Month
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see Consumer Safety and Environmental Health

  • June 28, 2016 - Global Female Prevalence of Drug Use, 2004

    Female Drug Use
    Map source:
  • June 27, 2016 - National HIV Testing Day

    HIV Testing Day
    Graphic source:


  • June 26, 2016 - 1st Anniversary of Same-Sex Marriage Legal in all 50 States

    gay marriage
    Graphic source:

    June 26, 2015 Supreme Court Ruling

  • June 24, 2016 - Women and Underemployment

    Graphic source:
    According to August 27, 2014's "Underemployment, College Majors, Compensation And Gender":
    • "A survey found 48% of the respondents identified as underemployed.
    • Compensation was a leading factor.
    • It is not just liberal arts and general studies that are identified as underemployed.
    • There seems to be a gender dimension to the issue as well.
    • ...modern economy simply does not need as many full time workers as it has in the past.
    • Underemployed refers to the feeling that one's job did not put their education or experience to work as much as they should.
    • Some ostensibly more practical majors, like criminal justice and business management graduates, identify themselves as underemployed in greater numbers than liberal arts or general studies. PayScale survey found 43% of the respondents felt underemployed and poor pay was a leading factor.
    • PayScale found that nine of the ten most underemployed majors were dominated by women. Underemployment may be, at least partly, a function of the gender wage gap.
    • Georgetown University Center on Education and Workforce survey found that the least underemployed majors were dominated by men. And men overwhelmingly dominated the highest paid majors.
    • Among the ten least paid majors, women dominate nine.
    • Sommers argued that the gender wage gap does not really exist. She argues that it is a question of life choices. In particular she states, "Much of the wage gap can be explained away by simply taking account of college majors." We suspect the situation is more complicated and the causal links are not clear."
    • Citation source:
  • June 23, 2016 - Women and Pay Disparities, by Educational Attainment

    Female salaries, by educational attainment
    Graphic source:
  • June 22, 2016 - Projected Educational Attainment, by Gender

    Female salaries, by educational attainment
    Graphic source:

    More college degrees will be earned by women in the foreseeable future. But, will women be rewarded for all the time they spend pursuing a college degree?

  • June 21, 2016 - Women and Pay Disparities, by Educational Attainment, 2011

    Female salaries, by educational attainment
    Graphic source:
    Are women being underpaid? You betcha. According to HRSA's Women's Health USA 2013, women earn less at every educational level, when compared to men. And, the pay disparity gets worse with greater educational attainment. How about equal pay for equal work?

    This inequity in pay is magnified when statistics show that 31.2% of families living below the poverty level are households headed by a single mother vs. only 16.1% headed by a single father.

    Women poverty
    Graphic source:
  • June 20, 2016 - Happy First Day of Summer!

    Graphic source:
  • June 19, 2016 - June is Men's Health Month

    Make sure you stay around to watch your kids grow up. Besides eating healthy and exercising daily, make sure your health is in tip-top shape. Make the appointment and get screened. Man up and wear the gown!

    For additional information, see Men's Health
    Men's Health Week/Month (June)
    Men's Health Network

    Cheat Sheet for Men's Cancer Screenings and Good Health
    Men screen
    Graphic source:
    Man Up - Wear the Gown
  • June 17, 2016 - June 17 is Wear Blue Day

    Wear Blue Day
    Graphic source:

    Wear Blue Day is "To raise awareness and money for education about men's need to seek regular checkups, or testicular cancer education, prostate cancer education, or other health issues that affect men. (Cardiovascular disease, skin cancer, lung cancer, diabetes, gout, and more.)" (

  • June 16, 2016 - Women and Academic Majors, 2010 - 2012

    Female education majors
    Graphic source:
    2012 top 10 majors
    Graphic source:
  • June 15, 2016 - June 15th was World Elder Abuse Awareness Day

    World Elder Abuse Awareness Day
    CDC's Elder Abuse Page

    For more information, see Senior Health

  • June 14, 2016 - 2009 Gender Differences in Choosing College Majors

    male college majors
    Graphic source:

    Female college majors
    Graphic source:

    According to 3/2010's "Top 10 College Majors For Women"
    • Women who study business believe it will give them a practical edge, says Judy Touchton, founder and CEO of, a consultancy for women in higher education. Women are choosing business majors because they, often guided by their parents, think they will be more likely to find jobs after college In this economy, practicality reigns.
    • Still, a business degree does not insure against the income gap. A woman one year out of college and working full time typically earns only 80% as much as her male counterparts. Why? According to the AAUW's 2007 Behind the Pay Gap report, women with business degrees are twice as likely as men with similar degrees to enter administrative, clerical or support positions earlier in their career. On the other hand, men with a business degree are more likely to enter management positions.
    • Citation source:
  • June 13, 2016 - Gender Differences in the Promise of Technology

    Gender differences re: technology
    Graphic source:
  • June 12, 2016 - In Memoriam: 6/12/16 Pulse Nightclub Massacre, Orlando, Florida

    Orlando 2016
  • June 10, 2016 - Gender Differences in Body Image

    According to the results of the TODAY/AOL Ideal to Real Body Image Survey, released on 2/24/14:

    • "Women spend an average of 55 minutes every day working on their appearance. Let's break that down a little further: That amounts to 335 hours every year or an entire two-week vacation lost to their looks
    • There's nothing wrong with caring about your appearance, of course. Part of caring for yourself is paying attention to the way you look. But there's a difference between self-care and investing too much of your self -worth in your appearance, and it's a tricky balance to stay on the right side of that line. Obsessing over your appearance is terribly unhealthy, potentially leading to mental health problems like anxiety, depression and disordered eating, decades of research has shown.
    • The survey found that 60 percent of adult women have negative thoughts about themselves weekly. That's compared to 36 percent of men. Even more alarming: 78 percent of teen girls are plagued with this kind of self-criticism.
    • Adult women worry more regularly about their appearance (67 percent at least once a week or more) than they do about finances (62 percent), health (49 percent), family/relationships (46 percent) or professional success (40 percent). Men aren't far behind, either, with 53 percent regularly worrying about their appearance. Only finances at 59 percent rank higher among weekly worries for men.
    • Whether they are engaging in fat talk or old talk, 77 percent of adult women and 80 percent of teen girls complained about their appearance to someone at least once in the past month.
    • Appearance worries hit moms doubly hard. 73 percent of moms regularly worry about their appearance, compared to 65 percent of women without children. Plus, 57 percent of moms worry about how their own body image affects their children. Forty-one percent of adult women say that selfies and other flattering online photos make them "feel more confident, but 46 percent say overall, social media makes me feel more self-conscious about my appearance. Sixty-five percent of teen girls say selfies and flattering online pictures make them feel confident, while 55 percent report feeling selfie-conscious.
    • 78 percent of women surveyed said they spent almost an hour a day on their appearance to "feel better about themselves." Looking good seems to be its own reward for women.
    • Nearly two-thirds (62 percent) of millennials (those age 16-34) worry that people are judging their appearance. On the upside, we fret less with age: 51 percent of Gen Xers (ages 35 to 49) and 35 percent of Boomers (ages 50 to 68) share that worry.
    • Eighty percent of teen girls compare themselves to glamorous celebrity images. Among those, nearly half are left feeling dissatisfied with their appearance. It makes sense that 56 percent of teen girls wish photo-shopping of models and celebrities would stop.
    • We are certainly our own worst critics. The average woman frets about six body parts, while the average man worries about three. Noted: Nobody likes their stomach with 69 percent of women worrying about their tummies compared to 52 percent of men. For men, thinning hair comes next (24 percent), followed by skin issues (23 percent).
    • For women, the list of common worries goes on: skin (40 percent), thighs (39 percent), hair (32 percent), cellulite (29 percent) and butt (29 percent).
    • It is not a bad thing to be invested in our appearance," says Jonathan Rudiger, a clinical psychologist in Nashville. "Our physical appearance is very much a part of the self. However, we must avoid investing in our appearance for self-worth. Appearance is only one aspect of the self. In our culture, we spend too much time focused on the external while neglecting the internal."
    • When asked at what age they felt best about their body, both men and women agreed on the golden age of 27. However, that does not mean our best days are behind us. The good news is that along with wrinkles comes the wisdom to accept them, and body image improves with age. While 80 percent of women under age 24 worry about their appearance regularly, among the 55+ crowd, that number drops to 52 percent.
    • It's totally normal to not be crazy about every single aspect of your physical self, especially for women, says psychologist Kathryn Gordon, an assistant professor at North Dakota State University. The trouble starts when you begin to obsess over the things you hate about your appearance, says Gordon, who has studied the negative effects of dwelling on body hatred.
    • There are a couple proven ways to turn down the volume on those negative thoughts:
    • 1. Distract yourself. When you notice yourself headed down a body-hatred shame spiral, sometimes all it takes is consciously trying to shifting your thoughts elsewhere, says Sarah Etu, a clinical psychologist in Fredericksburg, Va., who has published research that suggests distraction can lessen our stress over the way we look. If it's too hard to force yourself to change your thoughts, try doing something active, like doing the dishes, taking a walk or going to the gym.
    • 2. Accept yourself. Teach yourself to appreciate your body for what it can do, not what it looks like. Maybe your ankles are a little cankle-y, but did they carry you across a finish line at a 5K? Maybe your stomach is a little squishy, but did it carry your kids? When we move away from pretty and ugly labels, we can start to appreciate just how amazing our bodies really are," Rudiger says. "When we set healthy goals and stop focusing on what is wrong with our bodies, we can finally start to appreciate life and enjoy our connection to our body."
    • Because these are the bodies we're stuck with, he says. "We might as well learn to enjoy it and nurture it while we work on changing those unhelpful negative thoughts.
    • Citation source:

    For full results see TODAY/AOL 'Ideal to Real' body image survey results Feb 24th 2014

  • June 9, 2016 - Gender Differences: Pay Gap

    Gender pay gap
    Graphic source:
    Gender pay gap
    Graphic source:


  • June 8, 2016 - Causes of Maternal Mortality from 1980 to 2013

    Maternal Mortality
    Graphic source:
  • June 7, 2016 - State of Women's Health 2015

    Women's health
    Graphic source:
  • June 6, 2016 - The World Population of Women

    1/2 the world are women!
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see

  • June 5, 2016 - World Environment Day

    World Environment Day
    Graphic source:
  • June 5, 2016 - National Cancer Survivors Day

    Cancer Ribbons
    Graphic source:!about/cee5

    National Cancer Survivors Day Social Media Toolkit

  • June 3, 2016 - Global Prevalence of Violence Against Women, 2010

    Violence Against Women
    Map source:
  • June 2, 2016 - The Superbugs have arrived!

    Antibiotic Resistance
    Graphic source:
  • June 1, 2016 - FDA's New Nutrition Label

    Food Label Comparison
    Graphic source:
    FDA Food Label
    Graphic source:

  • May 31, 2016 - May 9, 2016 Mercury Transit

  • May 31, 2016 - World No Tobacco Day!

    World No Tobacco Day
    Graphic source:
  • May 30, 2016 - Mars Is Closest to Earth in 11 Years

  • May 27, 2016 - May 27th is National Sunscreen Day

    National Sunscreen day
    Graphic source:
  • May 26, 2016 - Global Female Alcohol Prevalence, 2004

    Female  Alcohol Use
    Map source:
  • May 25, 2016 - Global Female Insufficient Activity, 2010

    Female Inactivity
    Map source:
  • May 24, 2016 - Global Female Life Expectancy, 2015

    Female Life Expectancy
    Map source:
  • May 23, 2016 - Global Warming

    Global warming
    Graphic source:

    See The Earth is warming at scary rates, and this GIF proves it"

  • May 20, 2016 - Online Privacy and Security Risks

    Major Concerns Related to Online Privacy and Security Risks, Percent of Households with Internet Users, 2015

    Internet Privacy
    Graphic source:

    See OKCupid's embarrassing data leak is a cause for concern (May 15, 2016

  • May 19, 2016 - May is Hepatitis Awareness Month! Get Tested

    Hepatitis Awareness Month
    Graphic source:
    Graphic source:

    Hepatitis Testing Day May 19th. For more information, see CDC's Viral Hepatitis Page and Hepatitis

  • May 18, 2016 - What Do People Share on Social Media

    Social Media Shares
    Graphic source:
  • May 17, 2016 - National Women's Health Week - Be a Well Woman! Practice Safe Behaviors

    Safe Behaviors
    Graphic source:
  • May 16, 2016 - National Women's Health Week - Be a Well Woman! Mental Health Is Just As Important as Physical Health

    Mental Health
    Graphic source:
  • May 13, 2016 - National Women's Health Week - Be a Well Woman! Stay Active

    Graphic source:
  • May 12, 2016 - National Women's Health Week - Be a Well Woman! Eat Well

    Graphic source:
  • May 11, 2016 - Immunization Schedule For Pregnant Women

    Pregnancy vaccines
    Graphic source:
    While on the topic of women taking care of themselves, here is a "Pregnancy and Vaccination Pocket Guide" developed by the Minnesota Department of Health. It's always best to keep up with vaccines and get them at the appropriate time. However, exposure to potential pathogens may warrant getting some vaccines while pregnant. Important to keep in mind that some may be contraindicated. Check with your health care provider.

    See Minnesota Department of Health's Pregnancy and Vaccination Pocket Guide for more information.

    Check out Vaccines for the ones you need. Also, see and

  • May 10, 2016 - National Women's Health Week - Be a Well Woman! Get That Check-up

    Checkup List
    Graphic source:

    Use myhealthfinder's widget to get a quick list of what they need to do for stay healthy. Just type in your age and gender and click on "Get started." It's that simple.

    Also, check out's Screening Tests for a comprehensive listing of screening tests you should be getting to stay healthy. The table is organized according to screening test and age.

    You can print out a pdf of the Screening Test Table that you can post on the wall, or refrigerator to remind you of what you need to do.

    For more information, see Women's Health Index I have 5 webpages devoted to women's health issues.

  • May 9, 2016 - Rare Celestial Event: Mercury Will Cross In Front Of The Sun

    Mercury Transit
    Graphic source:
  • May 9, 2016 - National Women's Checkup Day

    Women's health checklist
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see Women's Health - General Resources

  • May 8, 2016 - Happy Mother's Day!

    mother stats
    Graphic source:
    Happy Mother's Day!
    Graphic source:

    Happy Mother's Day to all women who believe in the power of nurturing! On this day, take a moment to reflect on how important it is to take care of ourselves so we can continue to nurture those we love!

  • May 7, 2016 - May 8 - 14 is National Women's Health Week

    National Women's Week
    Graphic source:

    "National Women's Health Week is an observance led by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health. The goal is to empower women to make their health a priority. National Women's Health Week also serves as a time to help women understand what it means to be well.

    What does it mean to be a well woman?
    It's a state of mind. It's being as healthy as you can be. And, most importantly, it's about taking steps to improve your physical and mental health:

    • Visit a health care professional to receive regular checkups and preventive screenings.
    • Get active.
    • Eat healthy.
    • Pay attention to mental health, including getting enough sleep and managing stress.
    • Avoid unhealthy behaviors, such as smoking, texting while driving, and not wearing a seatbelt or bicycle helmet."
    • Citation source:
  • May 6, 2016 - May 6th - 12th is National Nurses Week!

    May 6-12, 2015, Nurses Week
    Graphic source:

  • May 5, 2016 - May is Asian-Pacific American Heritage Month!

    May is Asian-Pacific American Heritage Month
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders and Chinese Culture

  • May 4, 2016 - U.S. & Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines

    US Physical Activity Guidelines
    Graphic source:

    See 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans.

    This graphic summarizes the adult exercise guidelines

    Adult Exercise
    Graphic source:
    I like Canada's Exercise Guidelines which are nicely summarized below:

    Canada's Exercise Guidelines
    Graphic source:

    Of course, you can do this all day....

    For more information, see Fitness Resources and Obesity

  • May 3, 2016 - May Is National Physical Fitness Month

    National Physical Fitness and Sports Month - Get moving!

    Physical activity infographic
    Graphic source:
    Enlarged Graphic

  • May 2, 2016 - May 2 - May 6, 2016 is Air Quality Awareness Week

    Air Quality Chart
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see Air Quality Awareness Week; Why Air Quality Is Important and Teacher's Air Quality Resources

  • May 1, 2016 - May is Mental Health Awareness Month!

    May is Mental Health Month
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see Mental Health Resources

  • April 30, 2016 - April 30th is National PrepareAthon! Day

  • April 29, 2016 - Millennials and Social Media: No Facebook Account!

    No Facebook - security concerns
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see Not All Millennials are Hooked On Social Media

  • April 28, 2016 - April 28th is World Day for Safety and Health at Work

    World Day for Safety and Health Day
    Graphic source:
    Occupational hazards

    For more information, see World Day for Safety and Health at Work

  • April 27, 2016 - Millennials and Social Media: Percentage with No Social Media Accounts, by Gender

    No soical media accounts
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see Not All Millennials are Hooked On Social Media

  • April 26, 2016 - April 26 - May 3, 2016 is National Infant Immunization Week

    National Infant Immunization week
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see NIIW (National Infant Immunization Week)

  • April 25, 2016 - April 25th is National DNA Day!

    DNA Day
    Graphic source:

    For more information about Genomics, see Genomics and CDC's Celebrate National DNA Day on April 25th!

  • April 25, 2016 - April 25th is World Malaria Day!

    Malaria Life Cycle
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see World Malaria Day and The President's Malaria Initiative Tenth Annual Report to Congress | April 2016

  • April 24, 2016 - April 24 - 30 is National Infertility Awareness Week

    National Infertility Awareness Week
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see National Infertility Awareness Week and Women's Health

  • April 22, 2016 - April 22nd is Earth Day!

    April 22 is Earth Day
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see Environmental Health and NASA's There's No Place Like Home

  • April 21, 2016 - April is National Child Abuse Prevention Month

    Child Abuse Prevention Month
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see National Child Abuse Prevention Month

  • April 20, 2016 - April 20th is Volunteer Recognition Day!

    Volunteer Recognition Day
    Graphic source:
  • April 19, 2016 - April is STD Awareness Month

    STD Awareness Month
    Graphic source:

  • April 18, 2016 - April 18, 2016 National Transgender HIV Testing Day

    Transgender Testing Day
    Graphic source:

    Find out where you can get tested at: Act Against AIDS

    For more info, see TRANS HIV TESTING TOOLKIT

  • April 16, 2016 - National Stress Awareness Day

    Be calm and stress aware
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see Stress information

  • April 15, 2016 - April is National Donate Life Month

    April is Donate Life Month
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see America National Donate Life Month and Organ Donation Information

  • April 14, 2016 - April is Sexual Assault Awareness Month

    Sexual Assault Awareness Month
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see Sexual Assault Awareness Month Site & Domestic Violence Information

  • April 13, 2016 - April is Alcohol Awareness Month

    Alcohol Awareness Month
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see Alcohol

  • April 12, 2016 - April is National Minority Health Month!

    April is National Minority Health Month
    Graphic source:

    For more information, check Minority Health Information

  • April 11, 2016 - Public Health Expertise Network of Mentors (PHENOM)

    Public Health Expertise Network of Mentors
    Are you looking for a challenging career? Then join a diverse group of public health professionals who work all over the world, protecting mankind from itself and others and championing the beauty and the gift of Nature that is our environment.

    Who are public health professionals?

    • We are health communicators and educators spreading the word about how to live well and long;
    • We are epidemiologists studying disease while developing strategies to prevent its spread;
    • We are sanitarians ensuring that our food and water will not make us sick;
    • We are health care providers working to ensure that everyone can get the preventive services needed to stay healthy, and that the health services provided meet the standards of medical care;
    • We are policy makers advocating for and developing laws to protect the Public good;
    • We are disaster preparedness experts supporting the important work of first responders;
    • We are professors teaching future practitioners the basic principles needed to develop effective interventions that are evidence-based;
    • We work at all levels of government, and in any organization that share our vision of Public Health; and
    • We are grass roots advocates and coalition builders interested in empowering communities short on resources;
    • But, most of all, we collaborate with anyone and everyone to get the work done;
    • And, we do our best work totally unnoticed, because when the work doesn't get done, you will know it.

    Yes, we are all these things and more! Checkout our online directory of 66 Public Health Professionals.

    The Public Health Expertise Network of Mentors (PHENOM) has been around for over 20 years. Contact anyone of these professionals listed and learn more about what they do and what you can do if you join us, as we all work the field of Public Health!

  • April 10, 2016 - April 10th is National Youth HIV & AIDS Awareness Day

    April 10th National Youth HIV/AIDS Awareness Day logo with red ribbon on multicolor background
  • April 8, 2016 - National Public Health Week

    The first full week of April has been declared National Public Health Week (NPHW) since 1995. It's nice to have one week devoted to celebrating the importance of Public Health. For more information, see The Basics of Public Health and Public Health Practice

  • April 7, 2016 - April 7 is World Health Day - Beat Diabetes

    World Health Day World Health Day - Beat Diabetes

    Graphic sources:;

    For more information, see Focus on Diabetes

  • April 6, 2016 - National Walking Day! (First Wednesday of April)

    See Walking for your Health

  • April 5, 2016 - April 6, 2016 is World Day for Physical Activity

    World Day for Physical activity
    Graphic source:
  • April 4, 2016 - April 4 - 10, 2016 is National Public Health Week

    National Public Health Week
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see National Public Health Week

  • April 1, 2016 - Social Media Adoption Trends, By Income

    Social Media Adoption Trends, by Income
    Graphic source:
  • March 31, 2016 - Social Media Adoption Trends, By Gender

    Social Media Adoption Trends, by Gender
    Graphic source:
  • March 30, 2016 - Social Media Adoption Trends, By Age

    Social Media Adoption Trends, by Age
    Graphic source:
  • March 29, 2016 - Do Cell Phones Cause Disengagement at Social Gatherings?

    Cell phones at social gatherings
    Graphic source:
  • March 28, 2016 - Cell Phone Use at Social Gatherings Bothers Older Adults

    Cell phones at social gatherings
    Graphic source:
  • March 25, 2016 - The Burden of Tuberculosis

    TB TB

    Graphic source:

  • March 24, 2016 - World TB Day 2016

    End TB Day
    Graphic source:

    Graphic source:

    For more information, see CDC's World TB Day 2016 and, Tuberculosis

  • March 23, 2016 - Who Owns Multiple Electronic Devices?

    Multiple Device Ownership
    Graphic source:
  • March 22, 2016 - Je Suis Brussels

    I Am Brussels
    Graphic source:

    Remembering all the innocent lives lost and injured in the Brussells Terrorist Attacks today

  • March 21, 2016 - How U.S. Adults Rate Their Personality Traits

    US Adults, personality traits
    Graphic source:
  • March 18, 2016 - Public Interest Topics of Web Users, by Demographics

    Topics of interest, by gender
    Graphic source:
  • March 17, 2016 - Public Interest Topics of Web Users

    Topics of interest, by gender
    Graphic source:
  • March 16, 2016 - Digitally Monitoring What Teens Are Doing Online

    Digital Monitoring
    Graphic source:
  • March 15, 2016 - How Income Impacts on How Parents View The Dangers Facing Their Children

    Parental Concerns, by Income
    Graphic Source:
  • March 14, 2016 - Dangers that Kids and Teens Face Today

    Parental Concerns
    Graphic source:
  • March 14, 2016 - It's Pi Day!

    Pi Day Countdown

    March 13, 2016 - It's Daylight Savings Time!

    Daylight Savings Time
    Graphic source:
  • March 11, 2016 - Negative Effects of Sleep Deprivation

    Negative Effects of Sleep Deprivation
    Graphic source:
  • March 10, 2016 - What Happens When You Don't Get Enough Sleep

    Sleep Deprivation
    Graphic source:
  • March 9, 2016 - What Happens When You Sleep

    Your body loves sleep
    Graphic source:
  • March 8, 2016 - Stages of Sleep

    Sleep Stages
  • March 7, 2016 - How Much Sleep Should You Be Getting?

    Hours of Sleep
    Graphic source:
  • March 6, 2016 - March 6 - 13 is Sleep Awareness Week

    Sleep Awareness
    Graphic source:
  • March 4, 2016 - Those Under 50 Are Almost Always On Their Phones

    Turning off the cell phone
    Graphic source:
  • March 3, 2016 - Graphical Literacy

    Graphical Literacy
    Graphic source:
    According to PEWResearch:
    • This kind of chart known as a scatterplot is very familiar to people who are used to working with numbers, such as economists, scientists, researchers and data journalists. It is a good way to show a relationship between two variables.
    • About eight-in-ten (79%) of those with a college degree and 84% of those with a postgraduate degree chose the right answer out of four options. In contrast, only half of those with a high school education or less drew the correct conclusion.
    • We forget that we don't just understand graphics automatically,....The bar chart, the line chart, we are taught how to read those in school. We're taught how to understand graphics. And in most cases,..students aren't exposed to the scatterplot in grade school. It's mainly students who take a course in economics, statistics or some other scientific field who are exposed to the relationship analysis the scatterplot illustrates.
    • Visualizations should be read. They are like a piece of text. But once you read one, you know how to read another.
    • The scatterplot plots two variables in relationship to each other. One important point to understand is that the scatterplot shows correlation, not causality,...
    • Often, a scatterplot includes a line, known as the line of best fit, that helps to summarize the underlying relationship between two variables. The slope of this line can help illustrate whether an increase or decrease in one variable is associated with an increase or decrease in the second.
    • In our example, the tooth decay scatterplot shows a positive relationship. (A negative one would slope down from left to right.) You can see the strength of the relationship between two variables by how closely the data points are clustered around the line of best fit: the more data points on or near the line of best fit, the stronger the overall correlation.
    • Citation source: The art and science of the scatterplot
  • March 2, 2016 - Professional Ethical Standards Count!

    Professional Standards
    Graphic source:
  • March 1, 2016 - If You Could Do College Over, What Would You Do Differently?

    Doing College Differently
    Graphic source:
  • February 29, 2016 - Useful Majors

    Useful Majors
    Graphic source:
  • February 26, 2016 - Education and Economic Situation

    Education Pays
    Graphic source:
  • February 25, 2016 - The Perfect E-mail Length

    Perfect E-mail
    Graphic source:
  • February 24, 2016 - Annual E-mail Statistics, Part 3

    2015 E-mails, Betty C. Jung Welcome to a look at my E-mail statistics! Here is another way of looking at the total of E-mails I have to deal with on a daily basis. The average E-mail statistics reported yesterday doesn't tell the whole story.

    While the average daily E-mail statistic for 2014 (336.49) and 2015 (335.14) showed a slight improvement in the number of E-mails I have to deal with, the real fact of the matter is that it does not truly reflect the greater burden of dealing with E-mails because the rising proportion of regular E-mail I am getting, which I have to read.

    In actuality, I ONLY had to deal with an average daily burden of 168 regular E-mails in 2014, whereas, in 2015 my average daily burden of regular E-mails was 201! So, excuse me if I don't answer your E-mail right away! And, this goes for those individuals who insist on E-mailing me every 2 or 3 weeks to find out why I didn't respond to the previous one(s) they sent!

  • February 23, 2016 - Annual E-mail Statistics, Part 2

    2015 E-mails, Betty C. Jung Welcome to a look at my E-mail statistics! Since I now have several years of E-mail totals, it is always fun to do some trend analyses.

    Here is a line chart of the percentage of spam I got on an annual basis, and the average number of E-mails I got on a daily basis.

    The good news is I am getting less spam these days! The not-so-great news is that I am still getting about the same amount of E-mails on a daily basis. And, the truly bad news is I have more E-mails that I have to read. At least with spam I can just delete without reading!

  • February 22, 2016 - Annual E-mail Statistics, Part 1

    2015 E-mails, Betty C. Jung Welcome to a look at my E-mail statistics! Since 2012, I have been diligent about keeping track of how many E-mails I get on a daily basis.

    I started doing this because I tell people that I am constantly inundated with E-mails. I would say that I get hundreds. And, then people would say that nobody gets hundreds.

    So, like the epidemiologist that I am (among other things), I decided that I will track the number of E-mails I get and then analyze the results.

    Here is a bar chart of the total number of E-mails I got in 2015, per month. The monthly totals are categorized as either regular E-mail and Spam. For 2015, I got 122,309! Yes, indeed, I do get hundreds of E-mails a day!

  • February 19, 2016 - Education Pays

    Education Pays
    Graphic source:
  • February 18, 2016 - Modern Teen Romance

    Modern Teen Romance
    Graphic source:
  • February 17, 2016 - Do You Know What's Bothering Teens Today? Start with this list!

    Teen Stress Points
    Graphic source: ('Pressure to be online 24x7 taking toll on the young')
  • February 16, 2016 - Composition of the U.S. Labor Force, by Generation Groups

    Generation Labor Force Composition
    Graphic source:
  • February 15, 2016 - How the Current Job Market Functions

    Graphic source:
  • February 12, 2016 - How the U.S. Generations See Themselves

    Generation Thinking
    Graphic source:
  • February 11, 2016 - Googling Interest, by U.S. State

    State-based googling
    Graphic source:;
  • February 10, 2016 - US Immigration Trends

    US Immigrant Maps
    Map Source:
  • February 9, 2016 - It was 52 years ago today, the Beatles played on Ed Sullivan

  • February 8, 2016- Happy Chinese New Year!

    Happy Chinese New Yeark 2016
    Graphic source:
  • February 5, 2016 - 2015 had the highest average temperatures since the 1880s

    2015 Hottest year
    Bar graph created by bcjung from:
  • February 4, 2016 - 2015 was the hottest year ever

    2015 Hottest year
    Map created by bcjung from:

  • Feburary 3, 2016 - El Nino - What is it?

  • February 2, 2016 - Top 10 American Fears of 2015

    According to: 10/13/2015's "America's Top Fears 2015" Survey, here are the specific fear, fear domain, and the percentage of Americans reporting that they were afraid or very afraid:

    • Corruption of Government Officials (Government) 58.0%
    • Cyber-terrorism (Technology) 44.8%
    • Corporate Tracking of Personal Information (Technology)44.6%
    • Terrorist Attacks (Man-Made Disasters) 44.4%
    • Government Tracking of Personal Information (Technology) 41.4%
    • Bio-Warfare (Man-Made Disasters) 40.9%
    • Identity Theft (Crime) 39.6%
    • Economic Collapse (Man-Made Disasters) 39.2%
    • Running of out Money in the Future (Personal Future) 37.4%
    • Credit Card Fraud (Crime) 36.9%
    • Source:
  • February 1, 2016 - Top 10 American Fears of 2015

    Graphic source:
  • January 29, 2016 - Domains of U.S. Fears

    According to: 10/13/2015's "America's Top Fears 2015" Survey, here are the average Fear Score (out of 4)

    • Man-Made Disasters 2.15
    • Technology 2.07
    • Government 2.06
    • Environment 1.97
    • Personal Future 1.95
    • Natural Disasters 1.95
    • Crime 1.72
    • Personal Anxieties 1.63
    • Daily Life 1.51
    • Judgment of Others 1.31
    • Source:

  • January 28, 2016 - Domains of U.S. Fears

    Domains of Fear
    Graphic source:
    According to: 10/13/2015's "America's Top Fears 2015" Survey, the domains of fears were identified, and the types of questions addressing each domain:
    • Crime (Murder, rape, theft, burglary, fraud, identity theft);
    • Daily Life (Romantic rejection, ridicule, talking to strangers);
    • Environment (Global warming, overpopulation, pollution);
    • Government (Government corruption, Obamacare, drones, gun control, immigration issues);
    • Judgment of others (Appearance, weight, age, race);
    • Man-Made Disasters (Bio-warfare, terrorism, nuclear attacks);
    • Natural Disasters (Earthquakes, droughts, floods, hurricanes);
    • Personal Anxieties (Tight spaces, public speaking, clowns, vaccines);
    • Personal Future (Dying, illness, running out of money, unemployment)
    • Technology (Artificial intelligence, robots, cyber-terrorism);
    • Source:
  • January 27, 2016 - Number of violent victimizations by victim-offender relationship, 2010-2014(Bureau of Justice)

    Victim Type Stats stats
    Graphic created by Betty C. Jung from table at:
  • January 26, 2016 - Winter Death Trends

    Winter deaths
    Graphic adapted by BCJung from:
  • January 25, 2016 - Snow Totals for 2016 Snow Storm Jonas

    Snowstorm Jonas
    Map created by bcjung from:
  • January 23, 2016 - January 2016's Snow Storm Jonas

    Snow Storm Jonas
    Map Source:

  • January 22, 2016 - Number of rape/sexual assaults, robberies, aggravated assaults, and simple assaults, 2010-2014 (Bureau of Justice)

    Assault stats
    Graphic created by Betty C. Jung from table at:
  • January 21, 2016 - Dealing with Distractions

    Dealing with Distractions
    Graphic source:
  • January 20, 2016 - Electronic Devices are Time Wasters

    cellphone time waster
    Graphic Source:
    Here is an interesting graphic that I have shared with my class. As much as we would like to believe that using electronic devices make us more productive, the truth of the matter is they are basically time wasters.

    According to Flurry's analysis of 2014's mobile usage, most of what we have on electronic devices do not contribute to productivity. In fact, only 4% of what we have on those devices is devoted to productivity. 'nuff said.

  • January 19, 2016 - Age of Distractions

    Graphic source:
  • January 18, 2016 - Who is Constantly Online?

    Online constantly
    Graphic source:
  • January 15, 2016 - 90:10 The Single Most Important Thing You Can Do For Your Stress

    For more information, see 16 Ways To Improve Your Mental Health In 2016

  • January 14, 2016- Successful Losers

    Sucessful Losers
    Graphic source:
  • January 13, 2016 - The Status of New Year Resolutions

    New Year Resolutions
    Graphic source:

    See New Year's Res-Illusions: Food Shopping in the New Year Competes with Healthy Intentions 12/2014

  • January 12, 2016- The True Trajectory of Lifestyle Changes

    Lifestyle Changes
    Graphic source:
  • January 11, 2016- Why New Year's Resolutions Fail

  • January 8, 2016 - New Year Resolutions Statistics

    New Year Resolution Stats
    Graphic source:
  • January 7, 2016 - CNN: The top New Year's resolution - "It's not the destination, it's a journey"

  • January 6, 2016 - The start of a new year is a good time to make a change!

  • January 5, 2016 - New Year's Resolutions? Annual revisions?

    New year revisions
    Graphic source:
  • January 4, 2016 - Resolutions?

    Calvin and Hobbes and new year's resolutions
    Graphic source:
  • January 3, 2016 - How El Nino Will Affect U.S. Weather

    El Nino 2016
    Graphic source:
  • January 2, 2016 - If Twitter and Instagram had been invented in the '80s...

  • January 1, 2016- Happy New Year!

    Happy 2016
    Graphic source:
    France fireworks
    Graphic source:

  • August 25, 2015 - is now 16 Years Old!

    16 years and counting, thanks for visiting over the years!

    Happy 16th birthday!
    Graphic Source:">
    It is hard to believe that it has been 16 years since I published the first webpages that turned into this Web site. Many thanks to the thousands of visitors who contributed millions of hits during the past 15 years, and for all the nice comments along the way. I will continue to strive to make this Web site a worthwhile place to spend your time and find credible public health and health information. Thank you so much!

  • October 17, 2014 - October is Health Literacy Month

    Health Literacy Month
    Graphic source:
    Be a Health Literacy Hero! I am!

    For Health Literacy Month, the is accepting stories from any person who or organization that addresses health literacy in their work. There is a listing of those who have submitted their stories.

    Read my story of how I am teaching my students to be saavy about the health information that is found outline!

    If you are interested, check out my



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    Published on the Web: June 23, 2015
    Updated: 12/11/2022 R1,092
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