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January - June 2014

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Suggested Citation: Jung, B.C. (2014 - 2023). Betty C. Jung's 2014 Public Health Blog (January - June).
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January - June July - December

  • June 28, 2014 - Greetings from Mohegan Sun's Boston & Cheap Trick Concert

    Boston/Cheap Trick at the Mohegan Sun

    Fantastic concert!!! You had to be there!

  • June 27, 2014 - Women as Mental Health Services Seekers

    Women's Health 2012 - Mental health services
    Graphic source:
    According to Women's Health USA 2012:

    "In 2009-2010, nearly 31 million, or 13.6 percent of adults in the United States reported receiving mental health treatment in the past year for a mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder other than a substance use disorder. Women were more likely than men to receive treatment or counseling (17.5 versus 9.4 percent), which is roughly commensurate with the higher prevalence of mental illness (excluding substance use disorder) among women. Utilization of mental health services was more common among women with higher educational attainment. Approximately 20 percent of college-educated women reported past year mental health treatment compared to 13.2 percent of women without a high school diploma.

    Over 17 million women aged 18 years and older reported using prescription medication for treatment of a mental or emotional condition, representing 15.1 percent of women, which is almost twice the proportion of men (7.7 percent). Women were also nearly twice as likely as men to report receiving outpatient mental health treatment (8.4 versus 4.6 percent, respectively). Less than 1 percent of men and women received inpatient treatment in 2009- 2010.

    In 2009-2010, mental health services were needed, but not received in the previous year, by about 11.5 million adults, corresponding to 5.1 percent of adults in the United States. Women were almost twice as likely as men to have an unmet need for mental health treatment or counseling in the past year (6.6 versus 3.4 percent, respectively. Among women, cost was the most commonly reported reason for not receiving needed services (46.9 percent) followed by the belief that the problem could be handled without treatment (26.5 percent), not having enough time (17.6 percent), and not knowing where to go for treatment (15.1 percent)."

    Citation source:

  • June 26, 2014 - Family Caregivers are Wired for Health

    Family Caregivers are Wired for Health
    Graphic source:

    According to Women's Health USA 2012,"In 2009, 45.5 percent of all adults reported having used the Internet to obtain health information in the past year. Overall, women were more likely than men to have utilized this resource (50.9 versus 39.8 percent, respectively)." (

    Among the many roles that women play, the one has family caregiver has changed over the years. According to Pew Research Internet Project,
    • "Four in ten adults in the U.S. are caring for an adult or child with significant health issues, up from 30% in 2010. Caring for a loved one is an activity that cuts across most demographic groups, but is especially prevalent among adults ages 30 to 64, a group traditionally still in the workforce.
    • Caregivers are highly engaged in the pursuit of health information, support, care, and advice, both online and offline, and do many health-related activities at higher levels than non-caregivers.
    • When controlling for age, income, education, ethnicity, and good overall health, caregivers are more likely than other adults to:
      • Gather health information online, particularly about medical problems, treatments, and drugs.
      • Gather health information offline, from clinicians, friends, family, and others who share the same health condition.
      • Go online specifically to try to figure out what condition they or someone else might have.
      • Consult online reviews about drugs and other treatments.
      • Track their own weight, diet, exercise routine, or other health indicator.
      • Read online about someone else's personal health experience (which, in the case of caregivers, could be related to their own or their loved one's condition).
      • Go online to find others with similar health concerns (again, there may be dual motivations to connect to find more information about handling caregiver stress, for example, or about their loved one's health challenges)."

    Citation source:

  • June 25, 2014 - Women and Workplace Bullying

    Female Bullying
    Graphic Source:
    According to the "WBI Study: Attempts to stop bullying at work by targeted workers are ineffective"
    • "Most perpetrators, according to this survey, were women (63% compared to 62% men in the national sample). Women bullies torment women in 89% of cases; men bullies chose women in 63% of cases. Women were 79% of all targets.
    • Most of the bullies were bosses (75% compared to 72% in the national sample); 18% were coworkers, peers with the same rank (the identical rate in the national sample), and 7% of bullies bullied from a subordinate rank (compared to 10%).
    • In this 2012 study, 77.7% of bullied targets were no longer employed where they were bullied as the result of the bullying. An alternative way to report this is to say that once targeted for bullying an individual faced a 78% probability of losing the job he or she once loved.
    • In the 2010 WBI National Survey, 41% of women targets quit and another 25% were terminated. For men the quit rate was 36% and 13% were terminated. Unfortunately quitting includes voluntary action plus being constructively discharged, forced out. In this 2012 survey we were able to separate the reasons for quitting. Transfer rates in 2010 were 14% for women and 8% for men."
    • Citation source:

    For more information, see Bullying

  • June 24, 2014 - Women in the Workplace

    10 Findings about Women in the Workplace PEW 12/11/2013

  • June 23, 2014 - Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2013

    Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2013

  • June 20, 2014 - CDC Domestic Violence Statistics

    CDC domestic violence statistics
    Graphic source: CDC Releases Data on Interpersonal and Sexual Violence by Sexual Orientation E-mail
    The CDC has been compiling data about domestic violence for quite some time. According to its 1/25 listserv, "On January 25, 2013, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released the first of its kind report on the national prevalence of intimate partner violence, sexual violence and stalking victimization by respondents sexual orientation. This report highlights the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual violence (SV), and stalking of respondents who self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual at the time of the survey and describe violence experienced with both same-sex and opposite-sex partners, using 2010 data from the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS)."
    Just click on the graphic to access the CDC's "2010 Findings on Victimization by Sexual Orientation" of its National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey.

    Also, see Domestic Violence

  • June 18, 2014 - Myths About Domestic Violence

    Domestic Violence
    Source and Enlarged Graphic

    For more information, see Domestic Violence

  • June 17, 2014 - Sexual Assault on College Campuses

    According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism:

    • "College drinking is extremely widespread: About four out of five college students drink alcohol.
    • About half of college students who drink, also consume alcohol through binge drinking.
    • Each year, drinking affects college students, as well as college communities, and families.
    • The consequences of drinking include: Death: 1,825 college students between the ages of 18 and 24 die each year from alcohol-related unintentional injuries.
    • Assault: More than 690,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 are assaulted by another student who has been drinking.
    • Sexual Abuse: More than 97,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 are victims of alcohol-related sexual assault or date rape.
    • Injury: 599,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 receive unintentional injuries while under the influence of alcohol.
    • Academic Problems: About 25 percent of college students report academic consequences of their drinking including missing class, falling behind, doing poorly on exams or papers, and receiving lower grades overall.
    • Health Problems/Suicide Attempts: More than 150,000 students develop an alcohol-related health problem and between 1.2 and 1.5 percent of students indicate that they tried to commit suicide within the past year due to drinking or drug use."
    • Citation source:

    On May 1, 2014, the New York Times published 55 Colleges Named in Federal Inquiry Into Handling of Sexual Assault Cases

    "It was the first time that the Department of Education had made public a comprehensive list of colleges under investigation for potential violations of federal antidiscrimination law under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. The law prohibits gender discrimination at colleges that receive federal money." (

    At the same time the White House released its own report entitled NOT ALONE. The First Report of the White House Task Force to Protect Students From Sexual Assault released April 2014.

    The White House also posted providing resources to help deal with sexual assault on college campuses.

    In addressing the issue of sexual assault on campus, it is probably safe to say that something should also be done about the widespread use of alcohol and the prevalence of binge drinking.

  • June 16, 2014 - Women and Binge Drinking

    CDC women and drinking
    Graphic source:
    According to the CDC,
    • One in 8 women and 1 in 5 high school girls binge drink, increasing their risk of breast cancer, heart disease, STDs, and unintended pregnancy. Learn how your community can prevent binge drinking.
    • Women's and girls' bodies respond to alcohol differently than men's. It takes less alcohol for them to get intoxicated because of their size and how they process alcohol. Binge drinking can lead to unintended pregnancies, and women and girls who are not expecting to get pregnant may not find out they are until later in their pregnancy. If women binge drink while pregnant, they risk exposing their baby to high levels of alcohol during its early development, which can lead to miscarriage, low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs).
    • Citation source:

    For more info, see Binge Drinking Infographic

  • June 15, 2014 - World Elder Abuse Awareness Day

    World Elder Abuse Awareness Day
    CDC's Elder Abuse Page
  • June 15, 2014 - Happy Father's Day! & Man Up!

    Man Up - Wear the Gown Make sure you stay around to watch your kids grow up. Besides eating healthy and exercising daily, make sure your health is in tip-top shape. Make the appointment and get screened. Man up and wear the gown!

    To see what you need to do, see Men's Health

  • June 13, 2014 - Crime on College Campuses

    College Crime
    Graphic source:
    According to the National Center for the Victims of Crime,
    • "In 2010, 92,695 crimes were reported to college and university campus police. Of these reported crimes, 97 percent were property crimes, and 3 percent were violent crimes.
    • Of the violent crimes reported on college and university campuses, 53 percent were aggravated assaults, 29 percent were robberies, 18 percent were forcible rapes, and 0.2 percent were murder or non-negligent manslaughter.
    • Of the sex offenses reported under the Clery Act in 2010, 88 percent were on campus and 12 percent were not on campus."
    • Citation source:
  • June 12, 2014 - Sexual Assault in the Military

    ""I've never met one victim who was able to report the crime and still retain their military career," she says. "Not one." (Myla Haider)

    Sexual Assault in the Military
    Graphic source:
    Graphic source:

    These pie charts show sad outcomes for the reporting of sexual assault that occur in the military. Only about 1/4 of rape allegations result in a court-martial. And, of those who were court-martialed, only about a quarter of those were convicted.

    Last year I viewed the documentary,"The Invisible War" which was about rape in the military. It was a disturbing film because this issue of female soldiers serving our country being raped by mostly their immediate superiors should be addressed. Fortunately, there is a Web site offering support to those women and their families. Unfortunately, I know a mother of a female soldier who was raped in the military, and it is heartbreaking what this does not only to the soldier but also to her family.

    See also the 5/7/13 NY Times article, Sexual Assaults in Military Raise Alarm in Washington for President Obama's call to investigate sexual assault in the military. Article also includes, "...In 2010, a similar Pentagon survey found that 4.4 percent of active-duty women and fewer than 0.9 percent of active-duty men had experienced sexual assault."

    See also the 5/7/2013 NY Times editorial, The Military's Sexual Assault Crisis

    For more information, click on the graphic, or Invisible No

  • June 11, 2014 - Gendercide

    Graphic source:
    It is hard to believe that such a primitive practice as limiting the number of females born still exist today. In many countries, females are not only second-class citizens, many are just lucky to be born and come of age. Countries that practice gendercide (or prevent it from happening) are paying the price when boys come of age and there are no girls of marriageable age available.

    To learn more about this crude practice, see Gendercide - Boys without Girls
    It's a Girl
    Women's Rights Without Frontiers

  • June 10, 2014 - Reproductive Health During Times of Crises

    American women take for granted that reproductive services will always be available when they decide to start a family. But, this is not the experience of many women living in countries where there is political unrest.

    According to the CDC,

    • "Among the world's 34 million displaced people, approximately 80% are women and children and are vulnerable to abuses and negative health outcomes during crisis. Women often become heads of households because they are widowed or deserted during displacement and become sole providers and caretakers of their families. It is essential to have appropriate reproductive health services that will:
      • Ensure safe pregnancies and deliveries.
      • Meet family planning needs.
      • Prevent and treat sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS.
      • Respond to and prevent gender-based violence (GBV).
    • Citation source: Reproductive Health in Crisis Situations
  • June 9, 2014 - Female to Female Transmission of HIV

    HIV and women
    Graphic source:
    On March 14th, the MMWR issued the report, Likely Female-to-Female Sexual Transmission of HIV Texas, 2012 and raised awareness of female to female HIV transmission. This is an extremely rare mode of HIV transmission. I found the reporting to be somewhat incomplete. While it gave the sexual history of the woman who was infected, no sexual history was given for the woman who infected her partner, other than she was HIV positive, and that she discontinued HIV treatment. So, I contacted the CDC, and they sent me the following reply from Dr. M. Patricia Joyce, MD:

    "The HIV-positive woman who transmitted to her HIV-negative partner had an extensive history of crack cocaine use and having sex with men in exchange for drugs. She denied injection drug use ever. When she was diagnosed she reported a HIV-positive male sexual contact as her source. Many clinical details were shortened in the report. (Source: March 14, 2014 E-mail)

    So, there you have it. It's the epidemiologist in me that led me to pursue the completeness of disease reporting.

  • June 6, 2014 - Women and HIV

     CDC HIV stats for Men and Women
    Graphic source:
    When it comes to HIV infection in the U.S., the prevalence of HIV is greater for men, with African American men affected the most.

    According to CDC 2009 statistics, " women are more affected by HIV than women of all other races, accounting for nearly 60 percent (57 percent) of all new HIV infections among women in 2009. The HIV infection rate among black women was 15 times that of white women (39.7 v. 2.6 per 100,000)."
    Citation source:

    For more information, see HIV Among Women and Women and HIV/AIDS in the United States

  • June 5, 2014 - Women and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    HRSA STD stats Women
    Graphic source:

    Healthy People 2020 provides guidance about various issues impacting the population in general, and specific population groups. Safe sex prevents women from contracting sexually-transmitted diseases or infections (STDs/STIs), some of which are treatable, while others are not. Bacterial STDs not treated can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, which can affect a woman's fertility.

    This graphic shows that Black females are the most affected by chlamydia, followed by American Indian/Alaskan Native women.

    Baseline data show that "7.4 percent of females aged 15 to 24 years who attended family planning clinics in the past 12 months tested positive for chlamydia trachomatis infections in 2008." The target is 6.7 percent.

    For more information, see CDC's Prevention. How You Can Prevent Sexually Transmitted Diseases Also, see Sexually-transmitted Diseases/Infections

  • June 4, 2014 - Healthy People 2020 Objectives for Women

    Healthy People 2020 for Women
    Graphic source:
    Here is an excellent table that identifies all the public health issues that women face today and the Healthy People 2020 target goals to improving women's health. As you can see from the baseline statistics, there is plenty of room for improvement.

    More specific areas of contraction can be found on CDC's "Healthy People 2020 Focus Objectives: Women and Girl's Health Issues" Page and Office of Population Affairs 2010 Report, Reproductive Health and Healthy People 2020

    Additional information about Healthy People 2020 can be found at: Healthy People 2020

  • June 3, 2014 - Women's Health and Mortality Chartbook

    Women's Health Chart Book
    The Office of Women's Health's "Women's Health and Mortality Chartbook" is an excellent online interactive resource to search for state-level women's health data pertaining to:
    • Major causes of death among females (rate per 100,000)
    • Health risk factors (percent)
    • Preventive care (percent)
    • Health insurance coverage (percent)

    See how women are doing in your state, by race and ethnicity, against Healthy People 2020 Objectives, and how your state ranks against other states. Access the chartbook by clicking on the graphic.

    Here are the State Profiles . At a glance you can see which area each state needs to improve on when compared to Healthy People 2020's National Targets (e.g., current smoking, breast cancer, mammography, colorectal cancer screening), when it comes to women's health issues.

  • June 2, 2014 - Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality (AHRQ)'s 2011 Women's Health Highlights for Cardiovascular Disease

    The following is a select list of findings from AHRQ-supported research projects focusing on women's health topics published January 2008 through December 2011.

      Cardiovascular Disease
    • Women are more likely than men to experience a meaningful delay in ED care for cardiac symptoms. Women were 52 percent more likely than men to be delayed 15 minutes or more in reaching the hospital after calling 911.
    • Association found between cardiac illness and prior use of a certain type of breast cancer drug: Those who received chemotherapy that included anthracycline had a higher incidence of congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and dysrhythmia than women who received other kinds of chemotherapy or no chemotherapy.
    • Postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome are at increased risk for a cardiovascular event. Metabolic syndrome a combination of high blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, abnormal lipid levels, and increased waist size is known to be associated with elevated risk for heart attack and stroke. Overall, women who met at least one of the definitions for metabolic syndrome were significantly more likely to experience a cardiovascular event than those who did not.
    • Aspirin therapy to prevent heart attack may have different benefits and harms in men and women. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force reviewed new evidence from the National Institutes of Health's (NIH's) Women's Health Study and other recent research and found good evidence that aspirin decreases first heart attacks in men and first strokes in women. The Task Force recommends that women aged 55 to 70 should use aspirin to reduce their risk for ischemic stroke when the benefits outweigh the harms for potential gastrointestinal bleeding. The recommendation and other materials are available at
    • Female and black stroke patients are less likely than others to receive preventive care for subsequent strokes....66 percent of women and 77 percent of blacks received incomplete inpatient evaluations, compared with 54 percent of men and 54 percent of whites. Also, women were more likely than men to receive incomplete discharge regimens (anticoagulants and other stroke prevention medications and outpatient followup).
    • Citation source:
  • May 30, 2014 - Women and Heart Disease

    Where Women are dying from heart disease
    Graphic source:
    According to the CDC:

    "Among women, black women are at highest risk of dying early from heart disease and stroke (78 preventable deaths per 100,000 people), followed by American Indian/Alaska Native (46 preventable deaths per 100,000 people), White (36 preventable deaths per 100,000 people), Hispanic (30 preventable deaths per 100,000 people), and Asian/Pacific Islander women (22 preventable deaths per 100,000 people)." (Citation source: )

    • "Heart disease is the leading cause of death for women in the United States, killing 292,188 women in 2009 that's 1 in every 4 female deaths.
    • Although heart disease is sometimes thought of as a "man's disease," around the same number of women and men die each year of heart disease in the United States. Despite increases in awareness over the past decade, only 54% of women recognize that heart disease is their number 1 killer.
    • Heart disease is the leading cause of death for African American and white women in the United States. Among Hispanic women, heart disease and cancer cause roughly the same number of deaths each year. For American Indian or Alaska Native and Asian or Pacific Islander women, heart disease is second only to cancer.
    • About 5.8% of all white women, 7.6% of black women, and 5.6% of Mexican American women have coronary heart disease.
    • Almost two-thirds (64%) of women who die suddenly of coronary heart disease have no previous symptoms. Even if you have no symptoms, you may still be at risk for heart disease.
    • Citation source:
  • May 29, 2014 - Leading Causes of Death in Females United States, 2010

    The CDC has been compiling leading causes of death in females almost annually since 1998.

    Overall, heart disease (23.5%) is the leading cause of death, followed by cancer (22.1%). This is not necessarily true for all women of color. Heart disease is only the leading cause of death for white and black females. Cancer is the leading cause of death for American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian or Pacific Islander and Hispanic females!

    While, overall, stroke is the 3rd leading cause of death for females, this is only true for African-American, Hispanic & Asian women, while it is the 7th cause of death for American Indian/Alaskan Native women, and the 4th for white women, following chronic lower respiratory disease, probably due to smoking.

    Such mortality data indicate the importance of looking at such disparities by race and ethnicity as it helps to identify areas that may be missed by just looking at the overall population. For example, tobacco cessation messages may need to target white women more, while encouraging cancer screening among women of color would help to reduce the greater cancer mortality among these women.

  • May 28, 2014 - A Timeline of CDC/ATSDR Contributions to Women's Health

    CDC timeline
    Graphic source:
    Want an overview of public health issues affecting U.S. women today? Well, then check out the timeline the CDC and ATSDR have developed to document what they have done to improve the quality of women's lives.

    For example, selected 2013 CDC highlights about women's health include:

    • Binge Drinking: A Serious, Under-Recognized Problem Among Women and Girls;
    • Show Your Love Campaign designed to improve the health of women and babies by promoting preconception health and health care;
    • The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, 2010 Findings on Victimization by Sexual Orientation: Nearly 1 in 3 lesbians (29.4%), 1 in 2 bisexual women (49.3%), and 1 in 4 heterosexual women (23.6%) experienced at least one form of severe physical violence by an intimate partner in her lifetime;
    • New Study Shows HPV Vaccine Helping Lower HPV Infection Rates in Teen Girls;
    • U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2013;
    • Vital Signs: Overdoses of Prescription Opioid Pain Relievers and Other Drugs Among Women - United States, 1999-2010: Deaths from opioid pain relievers (OPRs) increased fivefold between 1999 and 2010 for women;
    • Trends in Smoking Before, During, and After Pregnancy - Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, United States, 40 Sites, 2000-2010: smoking prevalence before, during, or after pregnancy did not change over time;
    • Pregnancy Rates for U.S. Women Continue to Drop;
    • On-Line Course Trains Nurses on Preventing Workplace Violence;
    • How Did Cause of Death Contribute to Racial Differences in Life Expectancy in the United States in 2010? Life expectancy for black females was 3.3 years lower than that of white females. This difference was due to higher death rates for black females for heart disease, cancer, diabetes, perinatal conditions, and stroke.
    • Citation source:

    Click on the graphic, or go to A Timeline of CDC/ATSDR Contributions to Women's Health

  • May 27, 2014 - Women and Physical Activity, 2009 - 2011

    Women and Physical Activity
    Graphic source:
    Are women getting enough physical activity? Not really. According to HRSA's Women's Health USA 2013, only 16.6% of women had adequate aerobic and strengthening activity. But, women did better with aerobic than with strengthening activity. Regardless of aerobic activity, strengthening activity or both, percentage of participation increased with increased years of education.

    Citation source:

  • May 26, 2014 - Women and Sweetened Beverages, 2007 - 2010

    Women and Soda Consumption
    Graphic source:
    Do women love sweet stuff? They certainly do. When it comes to sweetened beverages, they are not as bad as men, but the percentages are way too high. Overall, 43.2% of women drink sweetened beverages. For women 18 - 24 years of age, 59.1% do, and 48.5% of women 25 - 44 years of age do, with 40.8% of women 45 -64 years of age. Way too many calories are consumed this way, which is probably why there is an obesity epidemic now.

    Here is a pie chart showing where all this added sugar is coming from:

    Added Sugar Sources
    Graphic source:
  • May 23, 2014 - Women and Alcohol, 2009 - 2011

    Women and alcohol
    Graphic source:
    Do women drink alcohol excessively? They certainly do. According to HRSA's Women's Health USA 2013, sadly, over a third (37.7%) of women age 18 to 25 years binge drink, while another 11.4% can be classified as drinking heavily. That means that 49.1%, or about 1/2 of women 18 to 25 years of age are drinking way too much.

    While the percentage of women who drink excessively decreases with age, this is a new trend for women needs some attention. The CDC has issued a Excessive Alcohol Use and Risks to Women's Health

  • May 22, 2014 - Women and Pay Disparities, by Educational Attainment, 2011

    Female salaries, by educational attainment
    Graphic source:
    Are women being underpaid? You betcha. According to HRSA's Women's Health USA 2013, women earn less at every educational level, when compared to men. And, the pay disparity gets worse with greater educational attainment. How about equal pay for equal work?

    This inequity in pay is magnified when statistics show that 31.2% of families living below the poverty level are households headed by a single mother vs. only 16.1% headed by a single father.

    Women poverty
    Graphic source:
  • May 21, 2014 - HRSA's Women's Health 2013

    HRSA's Women's Health USA 2013
    Graphic source:
    One of the best statistical resources for women's health is HRSA's annual "Women Health USA" reports. It provides the latest statistics for:
    • Population Characteristics
    • Health Status
      • Health Behaviors
      • Health Indicators
      • Reproductive and Maternal Health
      • Special Populations
    • Health Services Utilization

    Click on the graphic to access the 2013 online and pdf editions these annual reports. For more information, see US Government Statistics, and Maternal Child Health Data

  • May 20, 2014 - Women and Academic Majors, 2010 - 2011

    Female education majors
    Graphic source:
    Do women favor certain disciplines in higher education? They certainly do. According to HRSA's Women's Health USA 2013, women earn the majority of bachelor degrees in the health professions, followed by education. Only a small number choose to go into engineering and computer sciences.
  • May 19, 2014 - Gender Differences in the Promise of Technology

    Gender differences re: technology
    Graphic source:
  • May 16, 2014 - Gender Differences in Body Image

    According to the results of the TODAY/AOL Ideal to Real Body Image Survey, released on 2/24/14:

    • "Women spend an average of 55 minutes every day working on their appearance. Let's break that down a little further: That amounts to 335 hours every year or an entire two-week vacation lost to their looks
    • There's nothing wrong with caring about your appearance, of course. Part of caring for yourself is paying attention to the way you look. But there's a difference between self-care and investing too much of your self -worth in your appearance, and it's a tricky balance to stay on the right side of that line. Obsessing over your appearance is terribly unhealthy, potentially leading to mental health problems like anxiety, depression and disordered eating, decades of research has shown.
    • The survey found that 60 percent of adult women have negative thoughts about themselves weekly. That's compared to 36 percent of men. Even more alarming: 78 percent of teen girls are plagued with this kind of self-criticism.
    • Adult women worry more regularly about their appearance (67 percent at least once a week or more) than they do about finances (62 percent), health (49 percent), family/relationships (46 percent) or professional success (40 percent). Men aren't far behind, either, with 53 percent regularly worrying about their appearance. Only finances at 59 percent rank higher among weekly worries for men.
    • Whether they are engaging in fat talk or old talk, 77 percent of adult women and 80 percent of teen girls complained about their appearance to someone at least once in the past month.
    • Appearance worries hit moms doubly hard. 73 percent of moms regularly worry about their appearance, compared to 65 percent of women without children. Plus, 57 percent of moms worry about how their own body image affects their children. Forty-one percent of adult women say that selfies and other flattering online photos make them "feel more confident, but 46 percent say overall, social media makes me feel more self-conscious about my appearance. Sixty-five percent of teen girls say selfies and flattering online pictures make them feel confident, while 55 percent report feeling selfie-conscious.
    • 78 percent of women surveyed said they spent almost an hour a day on their appearance to "feel better about themselves." Looking good seems to be its own reward for women.
    • Nearly two-thirds (62 percent) of millennials (those age 16-34) worry that people are judging their appearance. On the upside, we fret less with age: 51 percent of Gen Xers (ages 35 to 49) and 35 percent of Boomers (ages 50 to 68) share that worry.
    • Eighty percent of teen girls compare themselves to glamorous celebrity images. Among those, nearly half are left feeling dissatisfied with their appearance. It makes sense that 56 percent of teen girls wish photo-shopping of models and celebrities would stop.
    • We are certainly our own worst critics. The average woman frets about six body parts, while the average man worries about three. Noted: Nobody likes their stomach with 69 percent of women worrying about their tummies compared to 52 percent of men. For men, thinning hair comes next (24 percent), followed by skin issues (23 percent).
    • For women, the list of common worries goes on: skin (40 percent), thighs (39 percent), hair (32 percent), cellulite (29 percent) and butt (29 percent).
    • It is not a bad thing to be invested in our appearance," says Jonathan Rudiger, a clinical psychologist in Nashville. "Our physical appearance is very much a part of the self. However, we must avoid investing in our appearance for self-worth. Appearance is only one aspect of the self. In our culture, we spend too much time focused on the external while neglecting the internal."
    • When asked at what age they felt best about their body, both men and women agreed on the golden age of 27. However, that does not mean our best days are behind us. The good news is that along with wrinkles comes the wisdom to accept them, and body image improves with age. While 80 percent of women under age 24 worry about their appearance regularly, among the 55+ crowd, that number drops to 52 percent.
    • It's totally normal to not be crazy about every single aspect of your physical self, especially for women, says psychologist Kathryn Gordon, an assistant professor at North Dakota State University. The trouble starts when you begin to obsess over the things you hate about your appearance, says Gordon, who has studied the negative effects of dwelling on body hatred.
    • There are a couple proven ways to turn down the volume on those negative thoughts:
    • 1. Distract yourself. When you notice yourself headed down a body-hatred shame spiral, sometimes all it takes is consciously trying to shifting your thoughts elsewhere, says Sarah Etu, a clinical psychologist in Fredericksburg, Va., who has published research that suggests distraction can lessen our stress over the way we look. If it's too hard to force yourself to change your thoughts, try doing something active, like doing the dishes, taking a walk or going to the gym.
    • 2. Accept yourself. Teach yourself to appreciate your body for what it can do, not what it looks like. Maybe your ankles are a little cankle-y, but did they carry you across a finish line at a 5K? Maybe your stomach is a little squishy, but did it carry your kids? When we move away from pretty and ugly labels, we can start to appreciate just how amazing our bodies really are," Rudiger says. "When we set healthy goals and stop focusing on what is wrong with our bodies, we can finally start to appreciate life and enjoy our connection to our body."
    • Because these are the bodies we're stuck with, he says. "We might as well learn to enjoy it and nurture it while we work on changing those unhelpful negative thoughts.
    • Citation source:

    For full results see TODAY/AOL 'Ideal to Real' body image survey results Feb 24th 2014

  • May 15, 2014 - Immunization Schedule For Pregnant Women

    Pregnancy vaccines
    Graphic source:
    While on the topic of women taking care of themselves, here is a "Pregnancy and Vaccination Pocket Guide" developed by the Minnesota Department of Health. It's always best to keep up with vaccines and get them at the appropriate time. However, exposure to potential pathogens may warrant getting some vaccines while pregnant. Important to keep in mind that some may be contraindicated. Check with your health care provider.

    See Minnesota Department of Health's Pregnancy and Vaccination Pocket Guide for more information.

    Check out Vaccines for the ones you need. Also, see and

  • May 14, 2014 - Screening Tests for Women

    I recommend to my students to use myhealthfinder's widget to get a quick list of what they need to do for stay healthy. Just type in your age and gender and click on "Get started." It's that simple.

    Also, check out's Screening Tests for a comprehensive listing of screening tests you should be getting to stay healthy. The table is organized according to screening test and age.

    You can print out a pdf of the Screening Test Table that you can post on the wall, or refrigerator to remind you of what you need to do.

    For more information, see Women's Health Index I have 5 webpages devoted to women's health issues.

  • May 13, 2014 - National Women's Health Week - Pledge to be a well woman!

    Map your commitment to taking better care of yourself. This year the National Women's Health Week has a webpage in which you choose what you will do to be a well woman. Choices include:

    • Get regular checkups & screenings
    • Get active
    • Eat healthy
    • Pay attention to mental health
    • Engage in safe behaviors
    • All

  • May 12, 2014 - National Women's Checkup Day (12th Annual)

    • Encourage women to visit health care professionals to receive or schedule a checkup.
    • Promote regular checkups as vital to the early detection of heart disease, diabetes, cancer, mental health illnesses, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and other conditions.
    • Citation source:

    For more information, see Women's Health - General Resources

  • May 11, 2014 - National Women's Health Week Starts Today! & Happy Mother's Day! (14th year)

    Happy Mother's Day!
    Graphic source:
    Happy Mother's Day to all women who believe in the power of nurturing! On this day, take a moment to reflect on how important it is to take care of ourselves so we can continue to nurture those we love!
  • May 10, 2014 - National Women's Health Week starts tomorrow!

    National Women's Week
    Graphic source:
  • May 9, 2014 - May is Mental Health Month!

    alt="May is Mental Health Month">
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see Mental Health Resources

  • May 8, 2014 - May is Hepatitis Awareness Month!

    Hepatitis Awareness Month
    Graphic source:
  • For more information, see CDC's Viral Hepatitis Page and Hepatitis

  • May 7, 2014 - May is Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month!

    May is Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders and Chinese Culture

  • May 6, 2014 - May 6th - 12th is National Nurses Week!

    May 6-12, 2014, Nurses Week
    Graphic source:

  • May 5, 2014 - U.S. Physical Activity Guidelines

    US Physical Activity Guidelines
    Graphic source: has updated its webpage covering the "2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans" since I covered this last May. They have trimmed it a bit and added pointers for special populations. Key Guidelines include:

    Children and Adolescents (aged 6-17)

    • Children and adolescents should do 1 hour (60 minutes) or more of physical activity every day.
    • Most of the 1 hour or more a day should be either moderate- or vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity.
    • As part of their daily physical activity, children and adolescents should do vigorous-intensity activity on at least 3 days per week. They also should do muscle-strengthening and bone-strengthening activity on at least 3 days per week.

    Adults (aged 18-64)

    • Adults should do 2 hours and 30 minutes a week of moderate-intensity, or 1 hour and 15 minutes (75 minutes) a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity. Aerobic activity should be performed in episodes of at least 10 minutes, preferably spread throughout the week.
    • Additional health benefits are provided by increasing to 5 hours (300 minutes) a week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity, or 2 hours and 30 minutes a week of vigorous-intensity physical activity, or an equivalent combination of both.
    • Adults should also do muscle-strengthening activities that involve all major muscle groups performed on 2 or more days per week.

    Older Adults (aged 65 and older)

    • Older adults should follow the adult guidelines. If this is not possible due to limiting chronic conditions, older adults should be as physically active as their abilities allow. They should avoid inactivity. Older adults should do exercises that maintain or improve balance if they are at risk of falling.

    For all individuals, some activity is better than none. Physical activity is safe for almost everyone, and the health benefits of physical activity far outweigh the risks. People without diagnosed chronic conditions (such as diabetes, heart disease, or osteoarthritis) and who do not have symptoms (e.g., chest pain or pressure, dizziness, or joint pain) do not need to consult with a health care provider about physical activity.

    Adults With Disabilities

    Follow the adult guidelines. If this is not possible, these persons should be as physically active as their abilities allow. They should avoid inactivity.

    Children and Adolescents With Disabilities Work with the child's health care provider to identify the types and amounts of physical activity appropriate for them. When possible, these children should meet the guidelines for children and adolescents or as much activity as their condition allows. Children and adolescents should avoid being inactive.

    Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    Healthy women who are not already doing vigorous-intensity physical activity should get at least 2 hours and 30 minutes (150 minutes) of moderate-intensity aerobic activity a week. Preferably, this activity should be spread throughout the week. Women who regularly engage in vigorous-intensity aerobic activity or high amounts of activity can continue their activity provided that their condition remains unchanged and they talk to their health care provider about their activity level throughout their pregnancy.
    Citation source: "At-A-Glance: A Fact Sheet for Professionals"

    Click on graphic to get to document. For a copy, click 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. For more information, see Fitness Resources and Obesity

  • May 2, 2014 - May Is Physical Fitness Month

    National Physical Fitness and Sports Month - Get moving!

    Physical activity infographic
    Graphic source:
    Enlarged Graphic

  • May 1, 2014 - National Women's Health Week May 11-17, 2014

    1/2 the world are women!
    Graphic source:

    "National Women's Health Week is an observance led by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health. The goal is to empower women to make their health a priority. National Women's Health Week also serves as a time to help women understand what it means to be well.

    What does it mean to be a well woman?
    It's a state of mind. It's being as healthy as you can be. And, most importantly, it's about taking steps to improve your physical and mental health:

    • Visit a health care professional to receive regular checkups and preventive screenings.
    • Get active.
    • Eat healthy.
    • Pay attention to mental health, including getting enough sleep and managing stress.
    • Avoid unhealthy behaviors, such as smoking, texting while driving, and not wearing a seatbelt or bicycle helmet."
    • Citation source:

    As in previous years, I am taking the opportunity to devote May's Public Health Blog postings to women's health. Afterwards, I will return to my coverage on tobacco.

  • April 30, 2014 - Reality Check: The Culture of the Class of 2016

    Class of 2016
    Graphic source:
    This infographic summarizes the cultural differences between college students today and the professors who teach them. Beloit College has been doing this for years, but this is the first time I've seen those differences presented in this way.

    If you want to some more shocking news of how fast the world is changing, then check out Top 100 Computer Trends of 2012

    And, here's a great idea for "repurposing" all those floppy disks lying around the house into a "retro fab tech purse."

    floppy disk purse
    Graphic source:

    And, by the way, infographics have become the preferred method for visualizing data of all kinds. For more information, seee Graphing and Charting Data

  • April 29, 2014 - US Views on Honesty and Ethical Standards in Professions

    Honesty, Ethics in the Professions
    Graphic source:
    According to recent surveys:
    • "American adults have very little trust in the integrity of advertising practitioners (Gallup);
    • ...53% of consumers believe that most marketing is a bunch of B.S. and that those same respondents rated marketing and advertising as one of the least valuable professions to society.(Adobe)"
    • Citation source:

    In other words, NURSES Rule!

    Nurses Rule!
    Graphic source:
    Nurses are the Heart of Healthcare
    Graphic source:
  • April 28, 2014 - April 28th is World Day for Safety and Health at Work

    World Day for Safety and Health Day
    Graphic source:
    Occupational hazards

    For more information, see World Day for Safety and Health at Work

  • April 25, 2014 - April 25th is National DNA Day!

    DNA Day
    Graphic source:

    For more information about Genomics, see Genomics and CDC's Celebrate National DNA Day on April 25th!

  • April 24, 2014 - April 20 - 26 is National Infertility Awareness Week

    National Infertility Awareness Week
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see and Women's Health

  • April 23, 2014 - April is National Donate Life Month

    April is Donate Life Month
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see America National Donate Life Month and Organ Donation Information

  • April 22, 2014 - April 22nd is Earth Day!

    April 22 is Earth Day
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see Environmental Health

  • April 21, 2014 - April is National Child Abuse Prevention Month

    Child Abuse Prevention Month
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see National Child Abuse Prevention Month

  • April 18, 2013 - Transportable Physician Orders for Patient (TPOPP)

    For more information, see Advance Directives/Wills

  • April 17, 2014 - April is Sexual Assault Awareness Month

    Sexual Assault Awareness Month
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see Sexual Assault Awareness Month Site & Domestic Violence Information

  • April 16, 2013 - April is Alcohol Awareness Month

    Alcohol Awareness Month
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see Alcohol

  • April 15, 2014 - Mont-Blanc Speed Flying

  • April 14, 2014 - April is National Minority Health Month!

    April is National Minority Health Month

    For more information, check Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health

  • April 11, 2014 - April 7 - 11 is National Youth Violence Prevention Week 2014!

    April 7-11 is  National Youth Violence Prevention Week 2014

    For more information, check CDC's Youth Violence: Prevention Strategies

  • April 10, 2014 - Public Health Expertise Network of Mentors (PHENOM)

    Public Health Expertise Network of Mentors
    Are you looking for a challenging career? Then join a diverse group of public health professionals who work all over the world, protecting mankind from itself and others and championing the beauty and the gift of Nature that is our environment.

    Who are public health professionals?

    • We are health communicators and educators spreading the word about how to live well and long;
    • We are epidemiologists studying disease while developing strategies to prevent its spread;
    • We are sanitarians ensuring that our food and water will not make us sick;
    • We are health care providers working to ensure that everyone can get the preventive services needed to stay healthy, and that the health services provided meet the standards of medical care;
    • We are policy makers advocating for and developing laws to protect the Public good;
    • We are disaster preparedness experts supporting the important work of first responders;
    • We are professors teaching future practitioners the basic principles needed to develop effective interventions that are evidence-based;
    • We work at all levels of government, and in any organization that share our vision of Public Health; and
    • We are grass roots advocates and coalition builders interested in empowering communities short on resources;
    • But, most of all, we collaborate with anyone and everyone to get the work done;
    • And, we do our best work totally unnoticed, because when the work doesn't get done, you will know it.

    Yes, we are all these things and more! Checkout our online directory of 61 Public Health Professionals.

    The Public Health Expertise Network of Mentors (PHENOM) has been around for over 20 years. Contact anyone of these professionals listed and learn more about what they do and what you can do if you join us, as we all work the field of Public Health!

  • April 9, 2014 - April 7 - 13 is National Public Health Week

    The first full week of April has been declared National Public Health Week (NPHW) since 1995. It's nice to have one week devoted to celebrating the importance of Public Health. For more information, see The Basics of Public Health and Public Health Practice

  • April 8, 2014 - April 7 - 13 is National Public Health Week

    National Public Health Week

    For more information, see National Public Health Week

  • April 7, 2014 - April 7 is World Health Organization's World Health Day!

    April 7th is Small Bite Big Threat Day
    Graphic source:

    Protect Yourself from Bug Bites! Video

    For more information about World Health Organization's emphasis on "Small Bite, Big Threat," go to WHO's World Health Day

  • April 4, 2014 - Smoking by Race & Ethnicity, 2009

    US smoking, by race/ethnicity
    Graphic source:

    According to Gallup's Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index:
    • "Black Americans are more likely than whites or Hispanics to smoke at most age points, with the largest gap among those in their 50s. Hispanics are less likely to smoke than whites or blacks at all age points up until about age 70.
    • Smoking is particularly prevalent among black men, reaching 40% among those aged 25 to 29, and stays at or above the 30% level up until age 60."
    • Citation Source:
  • April 3, 2014 - Smoking by Gender, 2009

    US smoking, by gender
    Graphic source:

    According to Gallup's Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index:
    • "Older Americans are generally less likely than those who are younger to report that they smoke, but the age/smoking relationship is not uniform. Smoking is higher among younger baby boomers between the ages of 44 and 54 than it is among those in their 30s and those 55 and older.
    • Baby boomers between the ages of 44 and 54 report higher levels of smoking than either those immediately younger or those who are older.
    • After peaking in the high 20% range for Americans in their 20s, smoking rates drop to 21% at age 40. After that point, instead of continuing to drop, smoking prevalence rises, climbing back to 27% among Americans age 51. Smoking then decreases again, eventually reaching 20% among those age 59, and typically well below that for those age 60 and older.
    • Men are more likely to report smoking than women at almost every age point, although both genders follow the same upward and downward smoking patterns across the age spectrum. The gender gap is particularly large for Americans who are now in their 20s and 30s.
    • The increased rate of smoking among young baby boomers is evident among women. The highest rate of smoking among women -- 26% -- occurs not only in their 20s, but also among women at age 48.
    • The highest rate of smoking among men occurs at age 23, when about a third report smoking. Unlike women, the rate of smoking among men never again breaks the 30% barrier even among those in their 40s and early 50s, though it is higher for men in this age range than for men in their 30s."
    • Citation Source:
  • April 2, 2014 - National Walking Day

    Graphic source:

    For more information, see National Walking Day American Heart Association

  • April 1, 2014 - Drink water and stay young!

  • March 28, 2014 - One in Five U.S. Adults Smoke, 1944 - 2012

    1/5 Americans Smoke
    Graphic source:

    According to Gallup's Consumption Habits polls:
    • "The prevalence of smoking in the U.S. is currently tied for the all-time low in Gallup trends dating from 1944, after a long, slow decline in smoking rates since the 1970s. Currently, 20% of adults say they smoked a cigarette "in the past week," down from 22% last year but matching the 2009 level.
    • Gallup recorded the sharpest decline in smoking between the early 1970s and late 1980s, with the rate dropping roughly 15 percentage points during this period. Smoking leveled off at about 25% for much of the 1990s, but has since descended slowly, if unevenly, to 20%.
    • Since the start of the 2000s, smoking has fallen nine percentage points among 18- to 29-year-olds -- from 34% in 2001-2005 to 25% in 2011-2012.
    • Smoking has long been inversely correlated with education, meaning smoking rates are highest among those with the least formal education and lowest among those with higher education levels.
    • At one time, nearly half of U.S. adults smoked cigarettes, but after smoking rates declined to 25% by the mid-1990s, public policymakers have found it difficult to drive the rate significantly lower. Although smoking among all adults dropped by only four points, from 25% to 21%, between 2001-2005 and 2011-2012, the good news is that the rate of decline is much sharper among adults 18 to 29 than among those 50 and older. This may reflect a decline in smoking among teens and other minors -- the ages at which a lifetime of smoking often starts -- and in any case increases the likelihood that smoking rates will continue to fall in the years ahead."
    • Citation source:
  • March 27, 2014 - Percentage of the population over age 18 who smoke tobacco products regularly, 2013

    percentage of the population over age 18 who smoke tobacco products regularly
    Graphic source:

    This is the most current map, based on County Rankings 2013 data, showing that Kentucky and West Virginia have the highest state smoking prevalence rates in the U.S. These two states should probably develop some smoking cessation interventions for its citizenry, or risk having to deal with large numbers of people with chronic diseases associated with smoking, if it isn't happening already.

    Of the 50 states, only two states have a smoking prevalence rate <14.5%: California and Utah. All states can benefit from encouraging Americans to quit smoking. The air would be so much better for everyone who has to breathe it.

  • March 26, 2013 - U.S. Smoking Prevalence, by State, 2010

    Global Female Smoking Prevalence
    Graphic source:

    This is a map based on 2010 BRFSS data shows that the smoking prevalence of 22 - 26.8% can be found in 7 states: Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Ohio, West Virginia.
  • March 25, 2014 - U.S. Smoking Prevalence, 1998 - 2008

    US Smoking Rates
    Graphic source:
    These maps are based on CDC data, which report that 20.6% of U.S. adults aged 18 and over, or about 46 million people, were smokers in 2008, up slightly from 19.8% in 2007. By 2008, Indiana, Kentucky and West Virginia had the highest smoking prevalence of all states.

    Citation source:

  • March 24 , 2014 - Students Who Smoke Cigarettes, 1976 - 2012

    High school smokers
    Graphic source:

    Here are some additional statistics about youth smoking. According to the Child Trends Databank:

    • "The prevalence of daily cigarette use among youth declined dramatically in the 2000s, decreasing to less than half of what it was in 1999,from 23 to nine percent among twelfth-graders in 2012.
    • According to results from the National Youth Tobacco Survey in 2004, more than two‐thirds of current smokers in middle school were not asked to show proof of age when purchasing cigarettes, nor were they refused purchase because of their age.
    • Youths' antisocial behaviors, as well as smoking among their parents and peers, were associated with daily smoking among youth who had initiated smoking by eighth grade. Parents' positive family management was associated with lower likelihood of escalation to daily smoking.
    • In 2012, two percent of eighth-graders, five percent of tenth-graders, and nine percent of twelfth-graders reported smoking daily, compared with seven, 16, and 23 percent, respectively, in 1999. Twelfth-grade daily smoking peaked in 1997 at 25 percent, while daily smoking peaked in 1995 for eighth- and tenth-graders, at 10 and 18 percent respectively.
    • Some of the factors that may be associated with these long-term declines in smoking rates are increases in the level of students disapproval of, and their perception of risk connected with smoking, as well as adverse publicity on the tobacco industry; a decline in cigarette advertising reaching youth, together with an increase in antismoking advertising; and substantial price increases for cigarettes.
    • Daily smoking among students increases with age. While only two percent of eighth-graders reported daily cigarette use in 2012, nine percent of twelfth-graders reported the same.
    • Rates of smoking for boys and girls in eighth and tenth grades have remained similar in recent years. However, among 12th graders, daily smoking rates among males have remained fairly constant since 2007, while rates for females have decreased. In 2012, 11 percent of boys in twelfth grade smoked daily, compared with seven percent of girls.
    • White students in tenth- and twelfth-grade are much more likely than their black and Hispanic peers to smoke. In 2012, six percent of white tenth-graders smoked daily, compared with three percent of both black and Hispanic tenth-graders. In twelfth-grade, the difference was even more stark, with 12 percent of white students smoking daily, compared with five percent of both black and Hispanic students. Differences by race and ethnicity among eighth-graders were not significant in 2012.
    • In general, students whose parents have high levels of education are less likely to smoke cigarettes daily than students whose parents have low levels of education. For example, in 2012, eight percent each of tenth-grade students with a parent who did not complete high school, and students with a parent with only a high school diploma smoked cigarettes daily, compared with four percent of those with a parent who had completed college, and three percent with a parent who completed graduate school.
    • Eighth-grade students who plan to complete four years of college are roughly six times less likely than students who do not have such plans to smoke daily (eight versus 1.4 percent, in 2012). In higher grade-levels this gap decreases, although twelfth-graders with college plans are still more than twice as likely as their peers without such plans to smoke (seven and 18 percent, respectively). "
    • Citation source:
  • March 21, 2014 - Tobacco Timeline: U.S. Smoking Rates Since 1965

    US Smoking Rates
    Graphic source:
    This graphic shows that for all the demographic categories shown, smoking rates have declined. Unfortunately, that bump up with high school students in the early '90s is not good as it only predicts that the negative health outcomes associated with smoking will manifest themselves a couple of decades from now, similar to trends shown when American women began smoking in higher numbers in the '60s. There is still the need to be vigilant to help adolescents understand the consequences of smoking.

    Graphic source:, from

  • March 20, 2014 - US Adult Per Capita Cigarette Consumption, 1900 - 2011

    CDC US Tobacco Use
    Graphic source:
    Here is a line graph of how cigarette consumption has fluctuated over time. Fortunately, the years of high consumption has occurred over 50 years ago. Still, 1232 cigarettes a year per capita consumption in 2011 is still pretty high.

    Hmm, let's do a little math. According to AWL, as of July 12, 2013, (, it costs between $4.96 (KY) to $14.50 (NY) for a pack of cigarettes. So, at the per capita rate of 1232 cigarettes, at 20 cigarettes per pack, that comes to between $303 to $893 a year for this habit. Such money can be better spent than on a habit that ruins the body.

  • March 19, 2014 - A Brief History of US Tobacco Use

    History of US Tobacco Use
    Graphic source:
    Here is a neat graphic that shows the rise and (hopefully a continuing) fall of tobacco consumption in the US, along with events that were meant to impact on the consumption.

    While this line graph shows that consumption is decreasing, at least till 1998, current challenges to this trend comes in the form of electronic cigarettes. Electronic cigarettes has been marketed as a smoking cessation aid, its effectiveness yet to be scientifically proven. At the same time, electronic cigarettes, which are now freely available in many shopping malls, are introducing young children and teens to the habit of smoking, and the hazards of nicotine addiction.

  • March 18, 2014 - Tobacco Economics

    China's cigarette consumption
    Graphic source:

    Looking at tobacco consumption in China has highlighted the problem of how the tobacco industry perpetuates itself. According to a 2011 China Daily report, "China's addiction to huge revenues from the State-owned tobacco monopoly is hindering anti-smoking measures, potentially costing millions of lives in the country with the world's largest number of smokers."

    "As the health impact of smoking, including rising heart disease and lung cancer, gradually emerges, unless there is effective government intervention, it will affect China's overall economic growth due to lost productivity," ( Citation source: )

    "While the Chinese government is well aware of the negative health effects of smoking and is willing to consider tobacco control options, such as banning cigarette advertisements, teen smoking, and smoking in public places, the government has yet to use a tobacco tax to control tobacco smoking. The government is reluctant to use a tax because it fears that increasing the tobacco tax would reduce the livelihood of tobacco farmers and threaten the economic base of the cigarette industry." (Citation source: Tob Control. 2006 June; 15(Suppl 1): i37 i41. doi: 10.1136/tc.2005.014621 PMCID: PMC2563551 China at the crossroads: the economics of tobacco and health;

    According to the World Health Organization,"Currently, tobacco industry focuses on developing markets, including the fastest growing populations and less regulated political systems. When compared to Western Europe or North America, 70% of tobacco consumption occurs in developing countries. The global trend is that in high-income nations, tobacco consumption has slowly declined in the last decades, while, on the contrary, middle and low-income countries, as for most of the Latin American region, consumption is increasing." ( Citation source: Acta md. costarric vol.54 no.1 San Josene./mar. 2012 Review Tobacco Economics Economa del Tabaco )

    As much as we would like to think that health should be the main priority in life, above all else, the unfortunate reality is, it is not. We will continue to see people dying from tobacco use.

  • March 17, 2014 - Health Effects of cigarette consumption in China

    Tobacco cultivation
    Graphic source:
    According to the 2006 research article,China at the crossroads: the economics of tobacco and health:

    "China consumes and produces more cigarettes than any other country. An estimated >4 million Chinese households rely on tobacco for their livelihood, either as tobacco farmers, cigarette industry employees, or cigarette retailers. China's state-owned tobacco monopoly company produces over 1.7 trillion cigarettes annually, generating almost US$2 billion profit and taxes in 2003, 7.4% of central government total revenue.

    China has over 350 million smokers and about 460 million passive smokers. The negative health impact of smoking has contributed to about one million premature deaths. If this pattern of smoking continues, premature deaths attributable to smoking can be expected to exceed two million deaths annually by 2020. Therefore, the Chinese government has a policy conflict between the economic interests of the tobacco industry and the health concerns of its people.
    Citation source:

  • March 14, 2014 - The Moody Blues at Connecticut's Oakdale Theater

    The Moody Blues
    Graphic source: ss277/MoodyJill_bucket/AA%20Promo/ 2014%20Spring%20Tour/2014logo_zps46d147f1.jpg~original

    It was simply a pleasure to see The Moody Blues again in Connecticut, for the fourth time! They are celebrating 50 years of rocking the world with beautiful music. Covering 50 years of music is no easy task, but they managed to do a fine job, as always.

    While they are not a spry as when they started 50 years ago, Graeme Edge still drums like there's no tomorrow and his humor was great. As he reminisced about the passing of Bob Hope, Johnny Cash and Steve Jobs, he mourns that now we are left with "No jobs, no cash and no hope."

    The theater sing-along with Justin Hayward of "Question" was simply magical and touching. And, let's not forget Lodge's humorous interplay with the audience. I do, however, miss what Hayward and Lodge used to do a lot more during concerts, and that's sauntering across the stage as they played their guitars. Lodge is now 68, Hayward 67 and Edge 72. But you would never know that listening to them.

    Moody Blues 2014
    Graphic source:
  • March 14, 2014 - Cigarette Consumption by Chinese Men

    Chinese men Smoking in China
    Graphic source:

    According to 2011's Ekonometrics,"...if the current trends continue, the number of Chinese dying annually of illnesses resulting from smoking will reach 3.5 million in less than 20 years." (Citation source: )
  • March 13, 2014 - Per capita cigarette consumption in China

    Smoking in China
    Graphic source:

    Here is an interesting graphic of who is smoking in China. According to's compilation of China-related statistics:
    • "One of every three cigarettes consumed around the world is smoked in China. [ WHO website ]
    • More than 300 million Chinese adults smoke among them more than half of all Chinese men. [ Newsweek Smoking All the Profits Feb. 13, 2011 ]
    • Over half of Chinese males over 15 years old are smokers, compared to only 2.4% of women. [ WHO Global Adult Tobacco Survey; Wall Street Journal China's Smoking Habit: Inhaling the Numbers Aug. 17, 2010 ]
    • Among China's youth, about a third of male teens smoke and nearly 8% of females. [ WHO website ]
    • Only 59% of Chinese smokers believe that Chinese society disapproves of smoking, the fourth lowest rate of 14 countries surveyed by the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC).[ITC China Summary, February 2009 ]
    • Less than a quarter of Chinese people both smokers and non-smokers believe that smoking causes lung cancer and other diseases. [ WHO Global Adult Tobacco Survey; Wall Street Journal China's Smoking Habit: Inhaling the Numbers Aug. 17, 2010 ]
    • Almost 60% of male doctors in China are smokers, representing the highest percentage of smoking doctors in the world. [ China Daily Smoke-free list extends to healthcare facilities Dec. 11, 2009, Wikipedia Smoking in the People's Republic of China]
    • |
    • China only banned smoking in hospitals in 2009 (to go into full effect 2011). However, the laws do not specify any fines or punishments for offenders. [ China Daily Smoke-free list extends to healthcare facilities Dec. 11, 2009, Wikipedia Smoking in the People's Republic of China]
    • In a 2010 WHO poll, 38% reported that they have seen smoking inside health-care facilities.[ WHO Global Adult Tobacco Survey; Wall Street Journal China's Smoking Habit: Inhaling the Numbers Aug. 17, 2010 ]
    • Citation source:
  • March 12, 2014 - Global smokers

    China has the most smokers
    Graphic source:
    As can be seen by this Tobacco Atlas map, the western region that includes China has the highest global tobacco consumption. This graphic also includes the alarming projection of the number of tobacco-caused deaths we can expect in the coming years.
  • March 11, 2014 - Two-thirds of World's Smokers Live in 10 Countries

    China has the most smokers
    Graphic source:
    Well, it looks like China is the big winner for having the most smokers in the world. We should keep in mind that this may be skewed by the fact that China has the largest population in the world as well. Nevertheless, I will look at how a country with such large numbers of smokers fare, in terms of health outcomes

  • March 10, 2014 - The 20 Year Lag Time Between Smoking and Cancer

    20 year lag time between smoking and cancer
    Graphic source:
    This particular graphic shows how a general increase in sales of tobacco products in the USA in the first four decades of the 20th century (cigarettes per person per year) led to a corresponding rapid increase in the rate of lung cancer in men during the '30s, '40s and '50s (lung cancer deaths per 100,000 male population per year) ( Citation source: )

    This lag time correlation was also used to explain how lung cancer deaths rose later in American women, when compared to American men, because they started smoking later than American men.

    According to,"...the number of lung cancer deaths in women increased by more than 600% between 1950 and 1997. Recently, though, the number of new cases of lung cancer in women has begun to decrease. However, this rate of decline has been smaller than the rate of decline in men." (

  • March 7, 2014 - Visualizing the Tobacco Epidemic

    Effects of smoking on women
    Graphic source:
    Global smoking prevalence has been decreasing in industrialized countries, while increasing in Asian, African and South American countries.

    Here is the paradigm that shows the typical progression of tobacco use worldwide. This was proposed by Lopez and colleagues and later adapted by the World Health Organization (WHO). Basically it shows the rise in male smoking prevalence precedes a steadily increasing smoking prevalence among females. However, this is not always the case in all countries due to cultural differences. (Citation source:

    However, this paradigm is reflective of the gender smoking prevalence in the U.S. and pretty much explains how the incidence of lung cancer in women trailed the incidence of lung cancer in men. This is explained in the next post.

  • March 6, 2014 - 2010 Percentage of females who smoke cigarettes

    Percentage of females who smoke cigarettes
    Graphic source:
  • March 5, 2014 - 2009 Global Female Smoking Prevalence

    Global Female Smoking Prevalence
    Graphic source:

  • March 4, 2014 - 2010 Percentage of males who smoke cigarettes

    Annual cigarette consumption per person
    Graphic source:
  • March 3, 2014 - 2009 Global Male Smoking Prevalence

    Global Male Smoking Prevalence
    Graphic source:

  • February 28, 2014 - 2010 Annual cigarette consumption per person

    Annual cigarette consumption per person
    Graphic source:
  • February 27, 2014 - Annual per capita cigarette consumption rates (year unknown)

    Annual per capita cigarette consumption rates.

    Annual per capita cigarette consumption rates
    Graphic source: (Gray countries have no data available. (Max Fisher / Washington Post))

    According to the World Lung Federation and the American Cancer Society, with data from 71 countries:
    • "Nobody lights up like Eastern Europe, where average annual consumption can exceed 2,000 cigarettes per person. The very highest rate is in Serbia (2,861 cigarettes per person per year). Fourth-place Russia, not far behind at 2,786 cigarettes per person per year, is now finally dealing with its smoking problem."
    • The highest rates are all in Eastern Europe. The one Eastern European exception is Romania, which had similarly bleak numbers until it enacted tough anti-smoking laws in 1997.
    • The biggest smokers outside of Eastern Europe are South Koreans, Kazakhs, and Japanese, in that order. China's smoking rate still lags behind Korea's and Japan's (1,711 cigarettes per person in China versus 1,958 in Korea and 1,841 in Japan), but China is the world's largest overall consumer of cigarettes.
    • A 1998 study of Russian smoking habits found a direct correlation between cigarette and alcohol consumption rates and a direct correlation between smoking and exposure to "Western influences," such as Western tobacco companies marketing cigarettes as symbols of a "glamorous Western lifestyle."
    • Americans rank right in the middle. The U.S. is ranked 34th in the available data, with about a thousand cigarettes consumed per person per year. We're about tied with the Israelis, the Australians and the Irish.
    • In this data set, poorer countries tend to be healthier. Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia have some of the lowest smoking rates in the world. Indians smoke only 96 cigarettes per year per person. Ethiopians only 46. If Americans smoked like that, cigarette companies would collapse overnight, but health-care costs would drop dramatically as well; direct health-care costs related to smoking in the United States are estimated at $96 billion per year."
    • Citation source:
  • February 26, 2014 - Tobacco Use is a Risk Factor for 6 of the 8 Leading Causes of Death in the World

    Tobacco as a risk factor
    Graphic source:
  • February 25, 2013 - Global Smoking Trends

    Global Smoking Trends
    Graphic source:
  • February 24, 2014 - Global Smoking Statistics

    Global Risks of Smoking
    Graphic source:
  • February 21, 2014 - Global Smoking Statistics

    Global Risks of Smoking
    Graphic source:
    According to the CDC and WHO's Global Tobacco Surveillance System Data (GTSSData):

    "Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. It is estimated to kill more that 5 million people each year and more than 600,000 people more than a quarter of them children will die from exposure to secondhand smoke. If current trends continue, by 2030, tobacco use could cause more the 8 million deaths annually."
    Citation source:

  • February 20, 2014 - Smoking - #1 cause of preventable deaths

    Smoking - leading cause of preventable deaths
    Graphic source: Danaei G, et al. The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors. PLoS Med 2009;6:e10000058.

    I just love this bar graph, which shows all the individual risk factors for health conditions that cause disease. While all these factors contribute to the development of diseases, smoking is responsible for a number of diseases and is the #1 preventable cause of death in the U.S. and in many other countries.

    Because tobacco is such a major contributor to the development of so many different diseases, just think of how many FEWER diseases people would be dying from if they would just stop smoking!!

    Citation source:

  • February 19, 2014 - Actual Causes of Death in the U.S.

    preventable causes of deaths
    Graphic source:

    Many times when we talk about causes of death, we actually think about what people die from. For example, heart disease is now considered the leading cause of death, in the U.S., and in most countries around the world.

    But, if you really think about causes of death, from a Public Health standpoint, what really are the actual causes death???

    • "In 2000 well over a third of all deaths in the United States could be attributed to a limited number of largely preventable behaviors and exposures--tobacco use (smoking), poor diet and physical inactivity and alcohol consumption.
    • Tobacco accounting for 435,000 deaths or 18.1% of total deaths in the US.
    • Poor diet and physical inactivity accounting for 365,000 deaths or 15.2% of total deaths in the US.
    • Alcohol consumption accounting for 85,000 deaths or 3.5% of the total deaths in the US."
    • Citation source: Mokdad, Ali H., Marks, James S. and Stroup Donna F. et. al. Actual Causes of Death in the United States, 2000. JAMA. 2004;291:1238-1245 (

    So,there you have it. It is our health behaviors, in most cases that affect how we will die. The positive side to all this is we can really do something about this.

  • February 18, 2014 - Revisiting Leading & Actual Causes of Death, 2000

    Leading and Actual Causes of Death
    Graphic source:

    According to the CDC, "In 2000, the most common actual causes of death in the United States were tobacco (435,000), poor diet and physical inactivity (400,000), alcohol consumption (85,000), microbial agents (e.g., influenza and pneumonia, 75,000), toxic agents (e.g., pollutants, asbestos, etc., 55,000), motor vehicle accidents (43,000), firearms (29,000), sexual behavior (20,000) and illicit use of drugs (17,000).

    Actual causes of death are defined as lifestyle and behavioral factors such as smoking and physical inactivity that contribute to this nation's leading killers including heart disease, cancer and stroke."

    Citation source:

  • February 14, 2014 - Happy Valentine's Day - Take care of your heart!

    Heart disease
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see Cardiovascular Disease

  • February 13, 2014 - Health Risks of Smoking

    Health Risks of Smoking
    Graphic source:
  • February 12, 2014 - Deaths Caused by Smoking

    Death by Smoking
    Graphic source:
  • February 10, 2014 - The Marketing of Smoking

    Doctors smoke Camels
    Graphic source:
    There was a time when cigarettes were marketed like this!! Think of what these ads are trying to say to us. Cigarettes are great, and even doctors smoke, so how bad can it be? Well, it's pretty bad, and the evidence shows that it's the single most preventable cause of death.

    This posting starts my series of looking at tobacco. While I have written many tobacco-related postings over the years, I have not really focused on tobacco because it just seemed so obvious to me that it's probably the nastiest habit around. Sadly, it's been around for a long time, and just the fact that we are celebrating the 50th anniversary of the Surgeon General's report should tell you that the problem is still with us.

    Always Buy Chesterfields
    Graphic source:

  • February 7, 2014 - 10th Anniversary of Go Red for Women

    10th anniversary of Go Red for women
    Graphic source:

    For more information, see Fo Red for Women Web site and Women and Heart Disease

  • February 6, 2014 - 2013 E-mail Stats, Part IV

    Betty C. Jung's 2012 E-mails Well, here is the final report on E-mails for 2013. Having 2 years' worth of data is great, and so this is a summary slide. The good news is the percentage of spam has pretty much stayed the same, around 48%, or less than half of all the E-mails I get. That's still a lot. Just think, for every 100 E-mails I get, 48 of them are spam!

    The bad news is the number of E-mails I am getting is increasing, from an average of 296 per day to 305 per day, which explains why I have gotten over 111,000 E-mails for 2013!

    The issue of E-mail communication have gotten some researchers interested, and one of the more interesting findings have been the impact of E-mails on one's mental health. There is now such a thing called, "Monday Morning E-mail Syndrome in University" (

    "Most academics in universities all over the world benefit from the use of e-mail for workplace communication...empirical studies have been focused on information overload, and indicate that employees are overwhelmed by the volume of a recent Australian study,..worry and e-mail volume significantly predicted e-mail stress among academics...over 90% of academics check e-mail at least every 2-3 hours during the work-week (over half of those check it every hour or more), and 95% of academics check e-mail always or sometimes on the weekend (most do so always).

    "..excessive communication and the need to be always visible and available,...could be interpreted as e-mail stress...e-mail stress affects over one third of the academics in each university and a statistically significant difference was not found between the universities....the fear of opening one's own e-mail box on Monday morning was the most typical reaction to e-mail stress."

    Yes, this is what we need, another source of stress!!! For more information about stress management, see Stress Management

  • February 5, 2014 - 2013 E-mail Stats, Part III

    Betty C. Jung's 2012 E-mails - the postage cost For the past two days I have been talking about how many E-mails I got in 2013. Since I have been doing this for two years, I can now do some comparisons between 2012 and 2013! This is better than nothing. Probably having 5 years' worth of data will be more useful, but this does offer a little more information than just having one year of data.

    For 2012, there were 4 months in which the percentage of spam was 50% or greater (April, May, November and December), whereas this occurred only for 2 months in 2013 (July and December). Well, that's improvement. Nevertheless, December remains the "spammiest" month of the year!

  • February 4, 2014 - 2013 E-mail Stats, Part II

    Betty C. Jung's 2012 E-mails Here is another way of looking at those 111,445 E-mails. While the total E-mails averaged out to about 305 E-mails a day, of which 48% was spam, there were monthly variations, probably due to the fact that some months have 30 days and others have 31 days. I got the most E-mails in October (9,954), with an average of 321 E-mails a day. This was followed by the month of November with 9,661 E-mails, for an average of 322!

    I got the most spam during December. About 53% of the E-mails I got were spam, for a total of 5,083 E-mails. You can see why - retailers were busy stuffing my inbox with junk! So, last year I was wondering if 2012's statistics were a fluke, well, they were not!

  • February 3, 2014 - 2013 E-mail Stats, Part I

    Betty C. Jung's 2013 E-mails Since I last reported on my 2012 experiences with E-mails a year ago (See January 24 - 28, 2013 Entries )I made the decision to continue tracking the number of E-mails I received for 2013.

    After tracking it for another year, there is no doubt that I am inundated with E-mails.

    After compiling and graphing the data, this is what I got. Indeed, I received 111,445 E-mails for 2013!! That comes out to an average of 305 E-mails a day! So, I really was getting "hundreds" of E-mails a day, or thousands of E-mails every month!

    Perhaps, the saddest revelation of finding out that I have been inundated with E-mails, almost 1/2 of what comes into my inbox is spam! There is no solution to getting rid of them. Fortunately, most E-mail accounts have spam filters that work, but they are not perfect. Now you know.

  • January 31, 2014 - Happy Chinese New Year!

    2014 - Year of the Horse

    Graphic source:

    See Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Chinese Culture

  • January 30, 2014 - NASA | Earthrise: The 45th Anniversary

  • January 29, 2014 - Top 10 Tech Trends for 2014: The Revolution Will Be 3D

    Top 10 Tech Trends for 2014: The Revolution Will be 3D

  • January 28, 2014 - 7 Huge Tech Trends to Expect in 2014

    7 Huge Tech Trends to Expect in 2014

  • January 27, 2014 - Tech Mega-trends for 2014

    Tech Mega-Trends for 2014

  • January 24, 2014 - 10 Consumer Tech Trends for 2013

    10 consumer tech trends for 2013 [research]

  • January 23, 2014 - Top-10 Public Health Issues of 2013

    Top-10 Public Health Issues of 2013

  • January 22, 2014 - Weird Events of 2013

  • January 21, 2014 - Strange Events Happening Worldwide 2013

  • January 17, 2014 - USA Today: Explore the top stories of 2013, Compliments of Infomous

    Explore the top stories of 2013

  • January 16, 2014 - Reuters Pictures of the Year 2013

  • January 15, 2014 - The Year That Was

  • January 14, 2014 - Major Growing Social Networks

    Social Networks
    Graphic source:
    According PEW's Internet & American Life Project social networking survey:
    • The 5 key social media platforms are Facebook, LinkedIn, Pinterest, Twitter, and Instagram. Pinterest adoption is higher among women and the strong appeal of Instagram and Twitter to black Americans. (Note that all percentages below refer to percentages of US adult internet users, rather than percentage of Americans.)
    • Facebook, ranks as the most popular social network (71%), particularly appealing to women (76%), 18-29-year-olds (84%), and those with household income (HHI) of <$50,000 per year (76%). Adoption among the 65+ crowd has grown by 10% points in about a year's time to reach 45%.
    • Men (24%) are more likely to use LinkedIn than women (19%), with highest use among the 30-49 (27%) and 50-64 (24%) age groups, and above-average among college grads (38%); 38% among those with HHI of $75k; the employed (27%) than the unemployed (12%), and ignored by the rural population (8%).
    • Women are 4 times more likely than men to use Pinterest (33% vs. 8%), with big gains among blacks (20%) and Hispanics (18%). Interestingly, 18-29-year-olds (27%) have moved ahead of 30-49-year-olds (24%) Interestingly, suburban respondents are more likely than urban respondents to use Pinterest (23% vs. 19%).
    • Non-Hispanic blacks remain far more likely than the average respondent to use Twitter (29% vs. 16%); and most popular among 18-29-year-olds (31%), suburban (18%) and urban (19%) are equally as likely to use Twitter.
    • Instagram use is also most popular among 18-29-year-olds (37%), and proves particularly appealing to non-Hispanic blacks (34%) and Hispanics (23%) than whites (12%).
    • Overall, Facebook remains the most popular platform as of the latest study, with its 71% adoption among adult internet users up from 67% in 2012. Of the 5 platforms, LinkedIn has the next-highest penetration (22%), slightly ahead of Pinterest, which has shot up 6% points to 21%. Twitter (18%) also edges Instagram (17%), although the latter has shown a much faster rate of growth (as also evidenced here). (The two platforms also have a sizable overlap in user groups.)
    • Almost 6 in 10 Instagram users report using the platform on a daily basis, second only to Facebook (63%) and significantly ahead of Twitter's 46%. Just 23% of Pinterest users and 13% of LinkedIn users report logging on daily.
    • Citation Source:

  • January 13, 2014 - 2013 Top Google Searches

    Google Top Searches
    Graphic source:
    According to Google's 2013 Zeitgeist report:
    • "Nelson Mandela made the widely revered former South African President the top trending search term of the year,;
    • As with last year, the top search trends were a mix of tragedies, technology, and yes, a video sensation that spawned countless imitations.
    • The untimely deaths of actors Paul Walker (#2) and Cory Monteith (#4) featured prominently among the top search trends globally (with associated Tweets among Twitter's most retweeted of the year), while the Boston Marathon (#6) also was in the top 10. But a bright spot did make the list, in the form of the royal baby, which came in at number 7.
    • The Boston Marathon was the top trending event around the world and in the US, with the Government Shutdown and Syria Conflict also featuring prominently in both lists."
    • Citation source:
  • January 10, 2014 - 90:10 The Single Most Important Thing You Can Do For Your Stress

  • January 8, 2014 - New Year Resolutions Statistics

    New Year Resolution Stats
    Graphic source:
  • January 7, 2014 - It's the Polar Vortex at work!

    Polar Vortex
    Graphic source:
  • January 7, 2014 - CNN: The top New Year's resolution - "It's not the destination, it's a journey"

  • January 6, 2014 - The start of a new year is a good time to make a change!

  • January 3, 2014 - New Year's Resolutions? Annual revisions?

    New year revisions
    Graphic source:
  • January 2, 2014 - Resolutions?

    Calvin and Hobbes and new year's resolutions
    Graphic source:
  • January 1, 2014 - Happy 2014!

    Happy 2014!

    Graphic source:


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    Published on the Web: November 16, 2013
    Updated: 12/11/2022 R536
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