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July - December 2013

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Suggested Citation: Jung, B.C. (2013 - 2023). Betty C. Jung's 2013 Public Health Blog (July - December).
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January - June July - December

  • December 31, 2013 - Zeitgeist 2012: Year In Review

  • December 30, 2013 - Best Christmas Lights Show 2011 - The end is awesome!

  • December 26, 2013 - 2007 - Trans-Siberian Orchestra - Christmas Eve in Sarajevo

  • December 25, 2013 - Merry Christmas & Happy New Year!

    Merry Christmas and Happy New Year

    Graphic source:

  • December 24, 2013 - The Digital Story of the Nativity

  • December 23, 2013 - Holdman Christmas Lights 2010 - Complete Show

  • December 20, 2013 - Weekly Web site destinations

     November 2013, popular Web site destinations
    Graphic source:
    According to November 7, 2013's "Which Types of Websites Do Most Americans Visit Frequently?" - Which types of websites are people visiting on at least a weekly basis? Based on the Ipsos OTX survey of 25 countries:
    • "Among American respondents, a leading 68% reported visiting a search engine site at least once a week, with social networking sites (59%) and portal sites (for checking email, such as Gmail) next (50%). Interestingly, while Americans were below the global average in each of those cases, they were far more likely than the average global respondent to indicate that they visit a shopping site (such as on at least a weekly basis (46% vs. 35%)...but 31% less likely to visit a news and information site.
    • Curiously, the study did not include health information sites. According to a Pew Research Center study released late last year, 72% of American internet users looked online for health information during the previous year.
    • Women are 41% more likely than men (69% vs. 49%) to say they visit a social networking site at least weekly; Men are 36% more likely to frequently visit a news and information site than women (34% vs. 25%);
    • About 7 in 10 18-34-year-olds say they visit a social networking site at least weekly, compared to 55% of 50-64-year-olds;
    • User-generated sites are frequently visited by a much greater proportion of the youngest (51%) than oldest (29%) age groups, with the same true of TV or video sites and online music sites, among others; and Shopping sites are frequently visited by a larger proportion of high-income (50%) than low-income (35%) respondents."
    • Citation source:
  • December 19, 2013 - Who's Offline?

Whos'e Not Online
    Graphic source:
    According to the May 2013 Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project report:
    • 85% of American adults use the internet, representing a new high point for internet adoption. That still leaves 15% of adults who do not use the internet or email, for a range of reasons.
    • Respondents with no high school diploma were 10 times more likely than college graduates to be offline (41% vs. 4%), with a high proportion (22%) of high school graduates without any college education also offline.
    • While just 2% of 18-29-year-olds are offline, that figure rises to 8% among 30-49-year-olds and 17% among 50-64-year-olds, before jumping to 44% of the 65+ group (including 62% of adults aged 77 and up).
    • Interestingly, although Hispanic cell phone users are more prone to using their device to go online than the average American, Hispanic adults are more likely than the average adult to be offline (24% vs. 15%).
    • 24% of respondents with Household Income (HHI) of less than $30,000 are offline, compared to 4% with HHI of more than $75,000. Rural Americans are also more likely to be offline.
    • 19% of offline adults say they don't use the internet because of the cost, while 7% cite lack of availability or access. The main reasons for not going online, though, concern relevance (34%) and usability (32%).
    • Among those who use the internet outside the home, the main reasons for not using the internet at home are price (42%) and relevance (17%)."
    • Citation source:

  • December 18, 2013 - XP still rules, despite its expected demise 4/2014

    Operating System Desktop Share
    Graphic source:
    On October 1, 2013, Zack Whittaker reports in Windows 7 outpacing Windows 8 adoption :
    • "Latest NetMarketshare figures suggest Windows 7 is outpacing Windows 8's adoption, despite a rapid reduction in Windows XP usage over the past quarter.
    • Over the past month, Windows 8's share has increased by 0.61 percentage points, rising to 8.02 percent of the total share. Whereas, on the other hand, Windows 7's share increased by 0.8 percentage points, rising to 46.3 percent of the market.
    • To put this into context, Apple's latest desktop operating system OS X 10.8 operating system grew by 0.27 percentage points to a mere 3.7 percent of the overall share. But this figure accounts for just shy of half of Windows 8's overall growth for August.
    • Meanwhile, Windows XP, which is set to lose Microsoft support for patches and updates in April 2014, lost a hearty chunk of share, dipping 2.25 percentage points to 31.4 percent of the overall market."
    • Citation source:

    Of course, the more interesting question that I don't see asked, but probably should be asked is what portion of the Windows 7 share does Windows 7 Professional have?

  • December 17, 2013 - 100K Demographics

    Demographics of the Rich
    Graphic source:
    The latest study by Ipsos of the affluent market reports:
    • The American affluent population is getting bigger and wealthier.
    • 62.5 million Americans count as affluents meaning that they are aged 18 and over and living in households with at least $100,000 in annual income an almost 6% increase from 59 million last year.
    • Over the past year, these individuals have enjoyed growth in average household income (by 4.6% to $200,200), liquid assets (by 9.1% to $551,400) and net work (by 2% to $1,006,600).
    • Affluents are almost evenly split between men (51%) and women (49%), which the researchers attribute to the definition of an affluent being based on household income;
    • Affluents actually are slightly younger on average (45.8) than the general population (46.5);
    • While a plurality 39% of affluents are Baby Boomers (49-67), 1 in 5 are Millennials (18-31) and about one-third are Gen Xers (32-48);
    • 7 in 10 affluents are married, and 41% have children under 18 living in their household;
    • 77% of affluents are non-Hispanic whites; Compared to the general population, Hispanics (8% vs. 15%) and African Americans (7% vs. 12%) are under-represented in the affluent population, while Asians (7% vs. 5%) are over-represented;
    • 1 in 10 affluents were born outside the US, and 17% speak a language other than English at home; and
    • Two-thirds of affluents are college graduates, compared to 37% of the general population (college student demographics can be found here).
    • On a geographic basis, while a plurality 33% of affluents are based in the South, they are under-represented (index of 89) in that region relative to the general population.
    • By contrast, they over-index in the Northeast (22% of the affluent population; index of 119) and the West (25% of the affluent population; index of 107).
    • New York City (>5 million) and Los Angeles (>3 million) house the greatest number of affluents."
    • Citation source:

  • December 16, 2013 - US Census Cartograms

    US Census Population Cartograms
    Graphic source:
    Here is the latest U.S. Census population visualizations. According to the Blog:

    "The size and overall distribution of the U.S. population has changed over time, as some states, especially those in the South and West, have grown faster than others. This series of cartograms shows the distribution of the population in 1890, 1950, and 2010. A cartogram is a map that represents the size of geographic units by a statistic such as population count instead of by actual land area. In each cartogram shown here, one square represents 50,000 people."

    See also US Census Data Visualization Gallery and U.S. Federal Government & Other National Statistics Sites

  • December 13, 2013 - The Rise of Data Science

    Data Science
    Graphic source:
    Every professional field will have its day, and it seems like with Big Data comes big aspirations - the rise of Data Science, and those who work with data, data scientists. Presently those dealing with data were commonly called "statistical and analytics professionals", and in public health, there are the statisticians, research scientists and analysts, and, of course, epidemiologists. Now, new job titles are being developed to encompass those who work with data in broader categories,separating them by the tasks they perform.

    According to the O'Reilly article, "There's More Than One Kind of Data Scientist Results from a survey of analytics professionals" summarizing the main points of the report, "Analyzing the Analyzers: An Introspective Survey of Data Scientists and their Work"

    • " scientists...have substantially different education, experiences, aptitudes, and attitudes. Why are they all using the same label?
    • ...this new job title or career path of data science came about because people were dissatisfied with existing ways of describing their roles and their work. But is everyone converging on data scientist progress, or is it just a source of confusion?
    • Our primary result is that we were able to identify four major categories of data scientist, based on clustering the ways that our respondents viewed themselves and their careers. We created new titles for these categories, and studied the common patterns in our respondents. Here are the categories and some highlights:
    • Data Business people are the product and profit-focused data scientists. They're leaders, managers, and entrepreneurs, but with a technical bent. A common educational path is an engineering degree paired with an MBA.
    • Data Creatives are eclectic jacks-of-all-trades, able to work with a broad range of data and tools. They may think of themselves as artists or hackers, and excel at visualization and open source technologies.
    • Data Developers are focused on writing software to do analytic, statistical, and machine learning tasks, often in production environments. They often have computer science degrees, and often work with so-called big data.
    • Data Researchers apply their scientific training, and the tools and techniques they learned in academia, to organizational data. They may have PhDs, and their creative applications of mathematical tools yields valuable insights and products.
    • Furthermore, we were able to show how these categories correlate with varying skills in five general areas. This figure from the report shows the relationships between the four categories and the five skill groups."
    • Citation source:

      Is that clearer now? When I worked as an epidemiologist and associate research analyst, my work involved aspects from each of these categories. So, how would they categorize public health professionals? I liked being an epidemiologist the best!

  • December 12, 2013 - Science & Technology Knowledge Varies by Education

    PEW Science & Technology Quiz
    Graphic Source:
    Results from the PEW's "Do you know more about science and technology than the average American?" show:

    "Education is the strongest demographic predictor of knowledge about science and technology. People with at least some exposure to college do much better than those with no college experience on nearly all of the questions.

    On several questions, there also are wide differences between college graduates and those who have attended college but not graduated. For instance, 76% of college graduates but just 55% of those with some college experience identify carbon dioxide as the gas that most scientists believe causes atmospheric temperatures to rise.

    Notably, even most college graduates could not identify the gas that makes up most of the earth's atmosphere. Just 31% correctly say it is nitrogen, while an identical percentage (31%) incorrectly says it is oxygen. Among those with a high school education or less, oxygen is the most frequent response."

    See PEW's report

  • December 11, 2013 - Science & Technology Knowledge Varies by Gender

    PEW Science & Technology Quiz
    Graphic Source:
    Results from the PEW's "Do you know more about science and technology than the average American?" show:

    "Overall, men outperformed women on the quiz, though in many cases the differences are modest. On average, men answered 8.6 items correctly, compared with 7.7 items for women.

    On the health-related questions on the quiz, however, women did as well as or better than men. Women are more likely than men to know that a major concern of the overuse of antibiotics is that it can lead to antibiotic-resistant bacteria (81% of women know this vs. 72% of men)."

    See PEW's report

  • December 10, 2013 - Science & Technology Knowledge Varies by Age

    PEW Science & Technology Quiz
    Graphic Source:
    Results from the PEW's "Do you know more about science and technology than the average American?" show:

    "As a group, those younger than 30 do about as well as those in the 30-49 and 50-64 age groups.

    Meanwhile, people 65 and older scored relatively low on many questions. Just 37% know that nanotechnology deals with small things; majorities in younger age groups know this. And just 27% correctly answered a question about how lasers work, compared with about half in older age groups.

    However, half (50%) of those 65 and older identify natural gas as the resource extracted in fracking, compared with 61% of those 50-64, 52% of those 30-49 and just 35% of those under 30. This was the only question on which those 65 and older scored higher than those younger than 30."

    See PEW's report

  • December 9, 2013 - Don't Know Much About Science & Technology?

    PEW Science & Technology Quiz
    Graphic Source:
    Given all the access and wealth of science and technology information around us, we really don't know much about science and/or technology. According to PEW's "Public's Knowledge of Science and Technology" report that was released earlier this year:

    Nearly half of Americans (46%) say that the main reason that many young people do not pursue degrees in math and science is mostly because they think these subjects are too hard; just 22% say it is mostly because young people think math and science are not useful for their careers while 20% say it is because they think these subjects are too boring. Women (54%) are more likely than men (37%) to say that the main reason young people do not pursue math and science degrees is because they think these subjects are too difficult."
    Citation source:

  • December 6, 2013 - CDC's Framework for Preventing Chronic Disease & Promoting Health

    CDC's Framework for preventing Chronic Disease
    Graphic source:
    CDC's "The Power to Prevent, The Call to Control: At A Glance 2009"
    • "Chronic diseases are the most common and costly of all health problems, but they are also the most preventable. Four common, health-damaging, but modifiable behaviors tobacco use, insufficient physical activity, poor eating habits, and excessive alcohol use are responsible for much of the illness, disability, and premature death related to chronic diseases.
    • CDC's National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion is at the forefront of the nation's efforts to promote health and well-being through the prevention and control of chronic diseases.
      • Prevent, delay, detect, and control chronic diseases.
      • Contribute to chronic disease research and apply that research to put practical and effective intervention strategies into practice.
      • Achieve equity in health by eliminating racial and ethnic disparities and achieving optimal health for all Americans.
    • Citation source:
  • December 5, 2013 - Lifestyle factors that lower blood pressure

    Lifestyle factors for lowering blood presure
    Graphic source:
    Here is a table of all the things we can do to lower blood pressure. All these strategies are within our control!

    Ace Fitness recommends:

    • "A regular cardiovascular exercise program can help prevent hypertension and lead to substantial declines in systolic blood pressure.
    • For maximal benefit, it is recommended that individuals engage in moderate-intensity exercise (40-60% of VO2max) for at least 30 minutes on most, preferably all, days of the week. Walking, swimming, cycling and low-impact aerobics are excellent options. As your aerobic conditioning improves, add a circuit-training program that emphasizes low-resistance, high-repetition exercises.

      (Note: When engaging in resistance training, avoid holding your breath, as this can lead to rapid increases in blood pressure and heart rhythm abnormalities.) New exercisers should ease into an exercise program by starting slow and developing a consistent routine before gradually increasing exercise frequency, intensity or duration.

    • Importantly, if you have hypertension, consult your physician before beginning an exercise program. This is especially critical for those who take blood pressure medications, which can alter the heart-rate response to exercise. "
    • Citation source:
  • December 4, 2013 - High Blood Pressure & Diabetes

    High blood pressure and diabetes
    Graphic source:
    To continue the discussion about the need for a multi-factorial approach to controlling blood pressure, those who do not control blood pressure must take into consideration the impact of comorbidity ("the simultaneous presence of two chronic diseases or conditions in a patient." Google)

    "...elevated SBP interacts strongly with diabetes to further increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Diabetes is an independent risk factor for CVD; therefore, people with diabetes are particularly vulnerable to other risk factors for CVD. Data from with diabetes and elevated systolic BP are at a significantly greater risk of CVD events than those without diabetes.

    While systolic BP was related to risk of CVD in both groups, the CVD death rate was greater for men with diabetes than men without diabetes at every level of systolic BP. Moreover, CVD mortality rate increased more sharply.

    In the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), for every 10-mm Hg decrease in systolic BP, there was a 12% decrease in any complication related to diabetes; 15% decrease in death related to diabetes (P<0.0001); 11% decrease in MI (P<0.0001); and a 13% decrease in microvascular complications (P<0.0001). Data from this study confirmed that the risk factors diabetes and hypertension should both be treated aggressively, altogether."
    Citation source:

  • December 3, 2013 - The Multi-factorial Basis of Hypertension

    Factors contributing to high blood pressure
    Graphic source:
    According to "World Health Organization's Global Brief on Hypertension," there are multiple factors influencing the development of high blood pressure. WHO's inclusion of urbanization and housing reminds us of the importance of the environment in contributing to hypertension.

    At the same time, the environment need not just be a contributor to hypertension but it can also be a factor that contributes to the control of high blood pressure and for maintaining normal blood pressure. Public Health takes into account ALL the factors that impact the awareness, control and treatment of hypertension.

    In so doing, Public health interventions have a better chance of succeeding in coming up with more effective solutions than just, for example, looking at treatment alone. To learn more about determinants of health, see Public Health Practice

  • December 2, 2013 - Questioning the overuse of statins

    As of this writing, the guidelines have only been released for a few days, and the recommendations for increased statin use are being questioned.

    Risk Calculator for Cholesterol Appears Flawed raises the issue of the possibility of putting too many people on statins that may not necessarily be as beneficial because the proposed risk calculator overestimates the risk. (See graphic at:

    A more pointed NY Times op-ed piece was published BEFORE the guidelines were released, ( Don't Give More Patients Statins ). The authors, John D. Abramson & Rita F. Redberg question the reasoning behind putting so people on statins.

    • "Statins are effective for people with known heart disease. But for people who have less than a 20 percent risk of getting heart disease in the next 10 years, statins not only fail to reduce the risk of death, but also fail even to reduce the risk of serious illness as shown in a recent BMJ article co-written by one of us. That article shows that, based on the same data the new guidelines rely on, 140 people in this risk group would need to be treated with statins in order to prevent a single heart attack or stroke, without any overall reduction in death or serious illness.
    • At the same time, 18 percent or more of this group would experience side effects, including muscle pain or weakness, decreased cognitive function, increased risk of diabetes (especially for women), cataracts or sexual dysfunction.
    • Perhaps more dangerous, statins provide false reassurances that may discourage patients from taking the steps that actually reduce cardiovascular disease. According to the World Health Organization, 80 percent of cardiovascular disease is caused by smoking, lack of exercise, an unhealthy diet, and other lifestyle factors. Statins give the illusion of protection to many people, who would be much better served, for example, by simply walking an extra 10 minutes per day."
    • Citation source:
  • November 29, 2013 - NHBLI Cardiovascular Guidelines Released on November 14, 2013

    How fortuitous that while I was devoting my Public Health Blog posts since October 1st to hypertension that a new rendition of the hypertension guidelines was released on November 14th by NHLBI, along with other guidelines to address cardiovascular disease risk factors!

    According to the 11/12/13 Medpage Today report, "Statins Get High Marks in New Cardiac Prevention Guidelines"

    • "The guidelines were initially commissioned by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute in 2008, and the ACC and AHA were brought in earlier this year to facilitate completion and publication of the documents...
    • "These guidelines will provide updated guidance to primary care providers, nurses, pharmacists, and specialty medicine providers in how best to manage care of individuals at risk for cardiovascular diseases based upon evidence up through 2011...
    • "The overarching goal of both the ACC and the AHA is to prevent cardiovascular diseases and improve the care of people living with or at risk of these diseases,"
    • Citation source:

    2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk - A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines Circulation

    2013 AHA/ACC/TOS Guideline for the Management of Overweight and Obesity in Adults - A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society Circulation

    2013 AHA/ACC Guideline on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk - A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines Circulation

    2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults - A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines Circulation

    AHA/ACC/CDC Science Advisory - An Effective Approach to High Blood Pressure Control A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention This document provides an Example Algorithm for Hypertension Treatment Hypertension, Journal of the American Heart Association

  • November 28, 2013 - Perihelion Day, watch for Comet ISON - C/2012 S1!

  • November 28, 2013 - Perihelion Day - Comet ISON - C/2012 S1!

    Comet Ison 11/28/13
    Graphic source:

  • November 28, 2013 - Happy Thanksgiving

    Gozzi Turkeys 2012
    Photo: BCJung, Gozzi Farm Turkeys, CT (11/16/12)
    Graphic source:
    Graphic source:
  • November 27, 2013 - NHLBI's Systematic Evidence Reviews

    Current NHBLI guidelines can be found at Current Clinical Practice Guidelines and Reports

    The NHLBI is currently sponsoring the development of four systematic reviews to enable partnerships with professional societies to produce recommendations for clinical practice on reducing cardiovascular risk in adults/. For information, see Systematic Evidence Reviews in Development

  • November 26, 2013 - Hypertension 2013 Updates

    Prior to the November 14 guidelines that were jointly released by the American College of Cardiology and the American Health Association, in collaboration with the National Heart,Lung and Blood Institute, online publications summarizing what has been going on with hypertension guidelines were available. The following 2 resources will provide you with a historic overview of what has been and currently are being done in developing new practice guidelines for treating hypertension.

    Hypertension Clinical Updates provides a literature review of the various guidelines that have been developed since 2003 when the JNC 7 was released.

    According to "Changes in Guideline Trends and Applications in Practice: JNC 2013," Dr. George L. Bakris summarizes what is going into the development of JNC 8, that he termed as JNC 2013.

  • November 25, 2013 - Public Health Thank You Day

    2013 Public Health Thank You Day
    Graphic source:

    Gratitude is always a good thing because it helps us to keep Life in perspective. We take so many things for granted that we don't appreciate what we have until we don't have it anymore.

    I like Research!America's annual "Public Health Thank You Day" because it puts what is my greatest love, Public Health, on the forefront, even if it's just for one day a year.

    Here's a great video that shows the scope of Public Health.

    A re-posting of my 2009 blog entry: Here are some of things we can be thankful for, with many thanks to all the Public Health Professionals, at all levels of practice, who have dedicated their careers to protecting the Public's Health in a variety of ways...

    • Waking up this morning from clean bedding that is not contaminated by pathogens;
    • Using a bathroom so human waste is disposed of properly;
    • Being able to drink water from the faucet without getting some disease;
    • Being able to eat breakfast without getting some disease;
    • Dropping off your kids in schools knowing they won't get sick because everyone got their immunizations;
    • Driving to work and not being exposed to harmful emissions from motor vehicles;
    • Going to work and spending the day in an environment that won't make you sick;
    • Going to lunch and eating in a restaurant that's been inspected;
    • Going for a walk and not being exposed to second-hand smoke or rotting garbage;
    • Getting a haircut and knowing those cutting your hair have been licensed;
    • Going to see health care professionals and knowing they are competent because they are licensed to practice;
    • Going to any health care facility and knowing they are licensed;
    • Going to bed and feeling safe because disaster preparedness exists at every level of government.
  • November 22, 2013 - A new approach to developing hypertension guidelines - issuing integrated cardiovascular guideline products

    In June 2013, the Journal of the American College of Cardiolgoy released Refocusing the Agenda on Cardiovascular Guidelines: An Announcement from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to explain that the long-awaited JNC 8, as well as other guidelines addressing cardiovascular risk factors such a cholesterol and obesity are progressing, but changes are being made as to how these guidelines are being developed.

    According to June 19th's Heartwire, NIH Says ATP 4, JNC 8 Guidance Out 'in a Matter of Months' (With a Twist),

    • "The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) announced today that the long-awaited guidelines for high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and other pressing CVD risk factors will be out "in a matter of months," but they will not necessarily go by the same names[1]. The biggest surprise in today's announcement was news that the institute has opted to partner with other "expert" groups to get the guidance out the door.
    • Going forward--and in a move that affects ATP 4 and JNC 8--the NHLBI has opted to publish five "integrated cardiovascular guideline products" as evidentiary reviews "and will subsequently collaborate with other organizations to prepare and issue the related clinical-practice guidelines."
    • The five CV "guideline products" include cholesterol, blood pressure, risk assessment, lifestyle interventions, and obesity.
    • ...the work already done by the NIH guidelines committees will be used by the partner organizations and that the involvement of these new partners will not further delay the protracted process; rather, that by partnering with other organizations, the expert reviews and guidelines will be out "not in a matter of years but a matter of months,"
    • "The current state of the documents [is] such that indeed they can be formulated into . . . systematic reviews [that] inform the generation of the recommendations that are part of clinical-practice guidelines,"
    • News that professional societies like the ACC and AHA will be involved was a surprise to many who have actively been working on the different guidance documents.
    • The last Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults: Report from the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP 3) document came out in 2001, with an update in 2004. The seventh version of Managing Blood Pressure in Adults: Report from the Joint National Committee (JNC 7) was released in 2003. And the first Managing Overweight and Obesity in Adults: Report from the Obesity Expert Panel (Obesity 1) dates from 1998."
    • Citation source:

    For additional information, see NHLBI adopts new collaborative partnership model for clinical practice guidelines development

  • November 21, 2013 - What is the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure?

    Graphic source:
    The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) is the national guideline document for the treatment of hypertension since 1997. The version history for the JNC is:
    • JNC 6: published 1997
    • JNC 5: published 1992
    • JNC 4: published 1988
    • JNC 3: published 1984
    • JNC 2: published 1980
    • JNC 1: published 1976

    Click on graphic, or, the following link to access a pdf of "The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure - Complete Report" This report was issued in 2004. It appears that newer hypertension guidelines to be released by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute will take on a different approach to how these guidelines will be developed and released in the future.

  • November 20, 2013 - Treating High Blood Pressure

    FDA - treating BP
    Infographic source:

  • November 19, 2013 - 2011-2012 Treatment of hypertension among adults with hypertension, by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin

    Age-specific and age-adjusted treatment of hypertension among adults with hypertension, by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin: United States, 2011-2012

    Age-specific and age-adjusted treatment of hypertension among adults with hypertension, by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin: United States, 2011-2012
    Graphic source:

    According to NCHS Data Brief Number 133, October 2013, "Hypertension Among Adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012"
    • "More women (80.6%) than men (70.9%) reported taking antihypertensive medication.
    • Current use of medication to lower blood pressure increased with age: 44.5% for those aged 18-39, 73.7% for those 40-59, and 82.2% for those 60 and over.
    • Non-Hispanic Asian adults with hypertension were less likely to report taking antihypertensive medication (65.2%) than were non-Hispanic black (77.4%) and non-Hispanic white (76.7%) adults.
    • Hypertension is a common and manageable chronic condition. Based on recent national data from 2011-2012, treatment of hypertension exceeded the Healthy People 2020 target goal of 69.5%. However, the control of hypertension has neither met the goal of the Healthy People 2020 (61.2% by 2020) nor the Million Hearts Initiative (65% by 2017). These results provide evidence for continued efforts to improve the management of hypertension in order to attain these goals."
    • Citation source;
  • November 18, 2013 - Getting a handle on High Blood Pressure


    CDC What's normal blood pressure
    Graphic source:

    According to CDC's September Vital Signs,"Getting Blood Pressure Under Control":
    • "High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke, both of which are leading causes of death in the US. Nearly one-third of all American adults have high blood pressure and more than half of them don't have it under control.*

      Many with uncontrolled high blood pressure don't know they have it. Millions are taking blood pressure medicines, but their blood pressure is still not under control. There are many missed opportunities for people with high blood pressure to gain control. Doctors, nurses and others in health care systems should identify and treat high blood pressure at every visit.

    • *Blood pressure control means having a systolic blood pressure less than 140 mmHg and a diastolic blood pressure less than 90 mmHg, among people with high blood pressure."
    • Citation source:

    As the bar chart shows, less than half of Americans with high blood pressure have it under control. If you don't know your numbers, then see your health care provider and find out. If it's too high, it's time to make some serious lifestyle changes (better diet, more exercise, etc.), and possibly the need to take medication. Get it under control!

  • November 15, 2013 - 2011-2012 Blood pressure Control

    Age-specific and age-adjusted control of hypertension among adults with hypertension, by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin: United States, 2011-2012
    Age-specific and age-adjusted control of hypertension among adults with hypertension, by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin: United States, 2011-2012
    Graphic source:
    • "The percentage of controlled hypertension among adults was higher for women (55.2%) than for men (49.3%);
    • Among adults with hypertension, those aged 18-39 (34.4%) were less likely to have controlled blood pressure than those 40-59 (57.8%) or 60 and over (50.5%);
    • However, there was no difference in controlled hypertension among adults in the different race and Hispanic origin groups: non-Hispanic Asian (46.0%), Hispanic (46.5%), non-Hispanic black (49.5%), and non-Hispanic white (53.9%)."
    • Citation source:

    When compared to 2009-2010 data (see below), both sexes show a lower percentage for controlling their blood pressure; more of those over 40 control their high blood pressure than those younger; Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black populations have improved in the percentage of those controlling their blood pressure vs. non-Hispanic Whites.

  • November 14, 2013 - 2009-2010 Blood pressure Control

    Age-specific and age-adjusted control of hypertension among adults with hypertension: United States, 2009-2010
    Age-specific and age-adjusted control of hypertension among adults with hypertension: United States, 2009-2010
    Graphic source:
    "Among adults with hypertension, those aged 18-39 were less likely to have controlled high BP (32.8%) than those aged 40-59 (55.7%) or 60 and over (54.9%)

    Age-adjusted hypertension control among adults with hypertension was higher for women (57.5%) than for men (50.4%).

    Age-adjusted control of hypertension was greater among non-Hispanic white adults with hypertension (56.3%) compared with non-Hispanic black adults (47.9%) and Hispanic adults (40.7%) with hypertension.

    Awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the U.S. adult population were significantly higher among women with hypertension than among men with hypertension. A higher percentage of non-Hispanic black adults with hypertension were aware of their hypertension and were taking medication to lower BP, compared with non-Hispanic white adults and Hispanic adults. However, non-Hispanic black adults had a lower percentage of hypertension control than non-Hispanic white adults. Hypertension control among non-Hispanic white adults was higher than among non-Hispanic black adults or Hispanic adults."

    Citation source:

  • November 13, 2013 - 1996-2009 U.S. Blood pressure Awareness, Control and Treatment Trends

    NHANES Hypertension control over time
    Graphic source:
    "Hypertension affects approximately 73.6 million persons in the United States or one-third of the adult population. This is an increase from 72 million persons in 2007, 65 million persons in 2002, and 50 million US adults in 1994 (or one-third, 29%, and 25% of the adult population, respectively).

    Although incidence of the condition continues to rise, the percentage of persons in whom hypertension is controlled increased to 64% in 2005-2006, up from 35% in 1999-2004. Among persons who used antihypertensive agents, those aged 18 to 59 years were more likely to achieve blood pressure control than those 60 years and older (72% vs 58%).

    Treatment levels and awareness of hypertension also showed significant increases during the period. Overall, 68% of adults were being treated with an antihypertensive therapy regimen and 78% of adults were aware of their condition. Men aged 18 to 59 years were much less likely (47%) than women in that age group (74%) to take their medication as directed."

    Citation source:

  • November 12, 2013 - 2011-2012 Hypertension Prevalence, by Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender

    Age-specific and age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension among adults aged 18 and over: United States, 2011-2012
    Age-specific and age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension among adults aged 18 and over: United States, 2011-2012
    Graphic source:
    Since starting this series on hypertension in October, the CDC has released NCHS Data Brief Number 133, October 2013, "Hypertension Among Adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012". The data for Age-specific and age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension among adults aged 18 and over: United States, 2011-2012 when compared to Age-specific and age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension among adults aged 18 and over: United States, 2009-2010 (October 25th posting):
  • Overall prevalence increased slightly from 28.6 to 29.1%
  • Prevalence by gender has not changed much between the two periods;
  • However, prevalence by age has shown an increase in the younger groups. For 18-39: 6.8% to 7.3%; 40-59: 30.4 to 32.4. For the 60 and over, there was a decrease from 66.7 to 65.0.
  • By race/ethnicity, prevalence has increased from 40.4% to 42.1% for Non-Hispanic Blacks, while prevalence changed very little for the other groups studied. An interesting change is the reporting for the "Hispanic" group in these newer data.
  • Citation source:
  • November 11, 2013 - 2009-2010 Hypertension Awareness, by Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender

    Age-specific and age-adjusted awareness and treatment of hypertension among adults with hypertension: United States, 2009-2010
    Age-specific and age-adjusted awareness and treatment of hypertension among adults with hypertension: United States, 2009-2010
    Graphic source:
    • "Among adults with hypertension, awareness of hypertension among those aged 18-39 (58.7%) was lower than among those aged 40-59 (84.1%) and those aged 60 and over (84.1%). Current use of medication to lower BP showed a similar tendency (46.0% for those aged 18-39 compared with 77.1% for ages 40-59 and 80.7% for ages 60 and over). There were no significant differences in the awareness and treatment of hypertension between adults aged 40-59 and those aged 60 and over."
    • Men with hypertension were less likely than women to be aware of their condition and to be currently taking antihypertensive medication. Awareness among men was 79.6% compared with 84.9% for women; treatment among men was 73.1% compared with 80.6% for women.
    • Non-Hispanic black adults were more aware of their hypertension (87.0%) than were Hispanic adults (77.7%). Also, Hispanic adults with hypertension were less likely to take antihypertensive medication (69.6%) compared with non-Hispanic white adults (76.6%) and non-Hispanic black adults (79.7%)."
    • Citation source:

  • November 8, 2013 - Hypertension Awareness 2009-2012

    Age-adjusted awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among adults with hypertension: United States, 2009-2012
    Age-adjusted awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among adults with hypertension: United States, 2009-2012
    Graphic source:
    "During 2011-2012, among adults with hypertension, 82.7% were aware of their hypertension, 75.6% reported currently taking prescribed medication to lower their blood pressure, and 51.8% had their blood pressure controlled.

    There was no significant change from 2009-2010 in awareness, treatment, or control among adults with hypertension."

    Citation source:

  • November 7, 2013 - Hypertension Awareness 2007-2010

    Age-adjusted awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among adults with hypertension: United States, 2007-2010
    Age-adjusted awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among adults with hypertension: United States, 2007-2010
    Graphic source:
    "Among adults with hypertension in 2009-2010, 81.9% were aware of their hypertension and 76.4% reported currently taking prescribed medication to lower their BP (Figure 2). There was no change from 2007-2008 in the awareness and treatment of hypertension.
    Among adults with hypertension, the percentage with controlled hypertension increased from 48.4% in 2007-2008 to 53.3% in 2009-2010."

    Citation source:

  • November 6, 2013 - NHNES 2011-2012 Hypertension Among Adults in the United States

    In the just recently release NCHS "Hypertension Among Adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012," the CDC reports on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012:

    • "The age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension among U.S. adults aged 18 and over was 29.1% in 2011-2012, similar to the prevalence in 2009-2010.
    • The prevalence of hypertension was similar for men and women at nearly one-third. The prevalence increased with age and was highest among older adults; it was also highest among non-Hispanic black adults, at approximately 42%.
    • Among adults with hypertension, nearly 83% were aware, nearly 76% were taking medication to lower their blood pressure, and nearly 52% were controlled. There was no change in awareness, treatment, and control from 2009-2010 to 2011-2012.
    • Controlled hypertension was similar across race and Hispanic origin groups, but the percentage controlled was higher for women and older adults.
    • Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and affects almost one-third of the U.S. adult population. In 2009-2010, nearly 82% of adults with hypertension were aware of their status, and nearly 76% were taking medication.
    • Despite considerable improvement in increasing the awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, undiagnosed and uncontrolled hypertension among minority groups remains a challenge."
    • Citation source:

  • November 5, 2013 - Employer Cost of Hypertension in the U.S.

    Employer Hypertension Costs
    Graphic source:
    Once again, here is Dr. Eytan looking at the cost of hypertension, from an employer perspective.
    • "Now, a different look at the data, which averages costs across the entire employee population, from the employer perspective.
    • This is different because it takes into account prevalence, and spreads that cost over all employees, whether they report the condition or not. My explanation for the different way this data looks is that the medical cost per person for hypertensive employees is far less than for heart disease, but there are many more hypertensive patients in a population. In the employee samples used to derive this data, there's a factor of 2 difference compared to heart disease (12.4 % vs 6.4 %)."
    • Citation source:

  • November 4, 2013 - Societal Cost of Hypertension in the U.S.

    Societal Hypertension costs
    Graphic source:
    The cost of any disease can be viewed in a variety of ways. Based only on California data, Dr. Eytan offers his perspective on looking at hypertension from a societal perspective.
    • "Let's first start with indirect costs added on top of direct costs, from the societal perspective. By indirect costs, we mean lost time from work (absence and short term disability), presenteeism (impairment while at work, to avoid being absent), and caregiving (21 million working men and women are caregivers in the US)
    • The indirect cost data is only for employed persons reporting the condition, which means it is a subset of the population (doesn't include indirect costs for the non-employed, doesn't include costs for the undiagnosed). The graph is therefore a little bit off, because the medical cost is for all people, productivity costs just for employment related losses."

      Citation source:

  • November 1, 2013 - Titan: The Mystery of the Missing Waves

  • October 31, 2013 - Cost of Hypertension in the U.S.

    AHA 2009 - Hypertension costs
    Graphic source:
    "The American Heart Association estimates that hypertension will cost the US economy $73.4 billion in direct and indirect expenditures in 2009, up from $69.4 billion in 2008 and $66.4 billion in 2007. Direct costs are projected to reach $54.2 billion in 2009, of which prescription drugs alone will total $25.4 billion."
    Citation source:
  • October 30, 2013 - Which Americans are affected by Hypertension?

    AHA - Women and blood pressure
    Graphic source:
    " Prevalence of hypertension is higher among men than women until age 45 years (Figure 2). From ages 45 to 64 years, hypertension prevalence is nearly equal between men and women. After age 65 years, prevalence of hypertension is significantly higher among women."

    Citation source:

  • October 29, 2013 - U.S. Hypertension Disparities

    US Hypertension Disparities
    Graphic source:
    In April 2013, Science News reported the findings of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) at the University of Washington, which looked at hypertension data by county, sex, and race for adults over 30 in the US from 2001 to 2009:
    • "One in five Americans is completely unaware that he or she is at risk for the second leading cause of premature death: high blood pressure.
    • The study found the largest burden of hypertension in the Southeast, the lowest prevalence in Colorado, and differences among genders, ethnic groups, and geographies. But despite high prevalence of hypertension in the Southeast, the region also had the highest levels of treatment, suggesting a major step forward.
    • Across US counties, the median rate of hypertension prevalence for men in 2009 was 37.6% and county-level rates ranged from 26.5% in Eagle County, Colorado, to 54.4% in Holmes County, Mississippi.
    • For women, the median rate of hypertension prevalence in US counties in 2009 was 40.1% with 28.5% in Pitkin County, Colorado, to 57.8% in Holmes County, Mississippi.
    • The study also highlights the need for increased efforts to raise awareness among women about the dangers of high blood pressure and the need for prevention and treatment.
    • Bristol Bay Borough, Alaska, was the only community of the 3,133 studied nationally where, between 2001 and 2009, the percentage of women receiving treatment had increased more than the percentage of men on treatment.
    • 2011 and 2012 that provided county-level life expectancy estimates for the past two decades showed that women in particular were faltering in comparison to the improvements in life expectancy seen in Europe and the high-income countries of the Pacific.
    • Texas had some of the highest disparities among counties in treatment levels for both men and women. California had treatment levels below the national averages for both men and women while Florida had rates of uncontrolled hypertension for both sexes that were higher than the national averages.
    • Counties in four states accounted for the 10 highest rates of hypertension prevalence -- Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Mississippi -- but the percentage of people in those states whose hypertension was being treated or was controlled increased between 2001 and 2009.
    • In addition to geographic disparities, the study also found disparities due to gender and race. Black men and women had the highest total prevalence of hypertension, at 50.8% and 54.4%, respectively.
    • Prevalence rates for Hispanic men were 38.1%, and 42.6% for Hispanic women. The states with the largest disparity between the genders in uncontrolled hypertension were Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, and Virginia.
    • Researchers noted the significant risks of uncontrolled hypertension, which kills 1 in 6 adults in the US.
    • IHME's Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010) found that, in 1990 and 2010, high blood pressure ranked second as a cause of premature death for women and third for men.
    • Citation source:
  • October 28, 2013 - The Geography of U.S. Hypertension, based on county-level data

    US Hypertension Disparities
    Graphic source:

    Here is a graphic created with Tableau software that looks at the prevalence of hypertension based on county-level data. Such a data visualization shows that geographic differences exist, and that the counties with the highest prevalence can be found in the southeastern states.

    Citation source:

  • October 25, 2013 - U.S. Prevalence of Hypertension

    Age-specific and age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension among adults aged 18 and over: United States, 2009-2010
    Age-specific and age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension among adults aged 18 and over: United States, 2009-2010
    Graphic source:
    "The age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension among U.S. adults aged 18 and over was 28.6% in 2009-2010 (Figure 1). There was no significant change from 2007-2008.

    The prevalence of hypertension was 6.8% among those aged 18-39, 30.4% for those aged 40-59, and 66.7% for those aged 60 and over.

    The age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was higher among non-Hispanic black persons (40.4%) than among non-Hispanic white persons (27.4%) or Hispanic persons (26.1%).

    The age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension among U.S. adults was 28.6% in 2009-2010. Among adults with hypertension, 81.9% were aware of their hypertension and 76.4% were currently taking medication to lower their BP. There have been significant increases in hypertension control over time among persons with hypertension, from 48.4% in 2007-2008 to 53.3% in 2009-2010."

    Citation source:

  • October 24, 2013 - World Health Day 2013 Hypertension Statistics

    World Health Day 2013 statistics
    Graphic source:
    For this year's World Health Day (4/7/13, celebrating WHO's founding in 1948) hypertension was chosen as this year's theme.
    • "Hypertension is the leading risk factor for death worldwide and affects both men and women.
    • Although 30% of the adult population suffers from blood pressure above 140/90 mmHg, a third of those who suffer it do not know they have this disease.
    • One in three people being treated for hypertension fail to keep their blood pressure below 140/90.
    • Available information in certain countries, including in the USA, reveals that, while high blood pressure is more common in men, from age 65 onwards a higher proportion of women suffer from it. An elevated number of male and female Afro descendants also have high blood pressure.
    • Hypertension increases the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and kidney failure. It can also cause blindness and heart failure. The risk of developing any of these complications is higher if hypertension is not controlled (ie, if it is not less than 140/90), and if other risk factors such as tobacco, obesity, and diabetes exist.
    • In the Americas, high blood pressure-related mortality is one of the ten leading causes of death in men and women.
    • Hypertension can be prevented by reducing salt intake, following a healthy balanced diet, avoiding the harmful use of alcohol, maintaining a physically active lifestyle, and a healthy body weight. It can be treated successfully if you follow the recommendations of your doctor and use safe medications. Several countries in the Americas have made progress in controlling hypertension and have achieved reductions in mortality from cardiovascular disease in the population."
    • Citation source:
  • October 23, 2013 - WHO 2012 Hypertension Statistics

    WHO hypertension statistics
    Graphic source:
    In May 2012, WHO released "WHO's World Health Statistics 2012" and the United Nations News Centre reported:
    • " in three adults worldwide has raised blood pressure...
    • "The number of people with high blood pressure and diabetes is drastically increasing in both developed and developing countries
    • In some African countries, as much as half the adult population has high blood pressure.
    • In high-income countries, widespread diagnosis and treatment with low-cost medication have reduced mean blood pressure across populations, leading in turn to a reduction in deaths from heart disease.
    • In Africa, however, more than 40 per cent of adults in many countries are estimated to have high blood pressure most of them remain undiagnosed, even though many of these cases could be treated with low-cost medications, which would significantly reduce the risk of death."
    • Citation source: and World Health Statistics 2012
  • October 22, 2013 - What happens when you don't control high blood pressure

    When you don't control high blood pressure
    Graphic source:
  • October 21, 2013 - Why High Systolic Pressure is bad for you!

    High systolic pressure
    Graphic source:
    "...a strong graded relationship of systolic BP >110 mmHg with CAD death was evident. Increasing systolic BP confers incremental risk even within normal (120-129 mmHg) levels. Clinical data have shown that systolic BP merits greater consideration than DBP because elevated systolic BP is a more powerful cardiovascular(CV) risk factor at all ages.

    Additionally, at systolic BP levels >=151 mmHg, relative risk of CAD death is about 4 times greater than the risk for a person with systolic BP <112 mmHg. ...MRFIT study - systolic BP was more strongly related to the risk of stroke than was DBP. For example, in the highest decile (<=151 mmHg/<=98 mmHg), the relative risk of stroke was 8.2 for systolic BP and 4.4 for DBP. This is also true with respect to End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). Those in the highest systolic BP quintile (>140 mmHg) had 5 times the relative risk of developing ESRD compared with those in the lowest systolic BP quintile (<117 mmHg)."
    Citation source:

  • October 18, 2013 - Hypertension is a major factor in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular death across the globe

    Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases
    Graphic source:
    According to "World Health Organization's Global Brief on Hypertension," hypertension is responsible for at 45% of deaths due to heart disease, and 51% of deaths due to stroke.

    These maps show that the distribution of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular deaths vary across countries, with higher mortality rates in Asia and Africa.

  • October 17, 2013 - Rapid aging is contributing to the rise in hypertension

    Global aging statistics
    Graphic source:
    According to "World Health Organization's Global Brief on Hypertension," global demographics indicate that the proportion of older people in many countries is growing. This means the prevalence of hypertension will be rising just by virtue of this demographic shift.
  • October 16, 2013 - Hypertension and Age

    Hypertension rises with age
    Graphic source:
  • October 15, 2013 - Global Prevalence of Hypertension in Women (2008)

    Global women hypertension 2008
    Graphic source:
  • October 14, 2013 - Global Prevalence of Hypertension in Men (2008)

    Global men hypertension prevalence 2008
    Graphic source:
  • October 11, 2013 - Causes of High Blood Pressure

    Causes high blood pressure
    Graphic source: Biology/lessons/ThirdQuarterLessons/Chapter08/ 8-2/images/16CausesHighBloodPressure.jpg
  • October 10, 2013 - How blood pressure is measured

    What is high blood pressure?
    Graphic source:
    "Blood pressure is measured with a blood pressure cuff and recorded as two numbers, for example, 120/80 mm Hg (millimeters of mercury). Blood pressure measurements are usually taken at the upper arm over the brachial artery.

    The top, larger number is called the systolic pressure. This measures the pressure generated when the heart contracts (pumps). It reflects the pressure of the blood against arterial walls.
    The bottom, smaller number is called the diastolic pressure. This reflects the pressure in the arteries while the heart is filling and resting between heartbeats.

    The American Heart Association has recommended guidelines to define normal and high blood pressure.
    Normal blood pressure less than 120/80
    Pre-hypertension 120-139/ 80-89
    High blood pressure (stage 1) 140-159/90-99
    High blood pressure (stage 2) higher than 160/100

    As many as 60 million Americans have high blood pressure. Uncontrolled high blood pressure may be responsible for many cases of death and disability resulting from heart attack, stroke, and kidney failure.

    According to research studies, the risk of dying of a heart attack is directly linked to high blood pressure, particularly systolic hypertension. The higher your blood pressure, the higher the risk. Maintaining lifelong control of hypertension decreases the future risk of complications such as heart attack and stroke."

    Citation source:

  • October 9, 2013 - High Blood Pressure Overview

    What is high blood pressure?
    Graphic source:
    "The heart pumps blood into the arteries with enough force to push blood to the far reaches of each organ from the top of the head to the bottom of the feet. Blood pressure can be defined as the pressure of blood on the walls of the arteries as it circulates through the body.

    Blood pressure is highest as its leaves the heart through the aorta and gradually decreases as it enters smaller and smaller blood vessels (arteries, arterioles, and capillaries). Blood returns in the veins leading to the heart, aided by gravity and muscle contraction.

    Hypertension is the medical term for high blood pressure. It is known as the "silent killer" since it has no initial symptoms but can lead to long-term disease and complications. Many people have high blood pressure and don't know it.

    Important complications of uncontrolled or poorly treated high blood pressure include heart attack, congestive heart failure, stroke, kidney failure, peripheral artery disease, and aortic aneurysms (weakening of the wall of the aorta, leading to widening or ballooning of the aorta).

    Public awareness of these dangers has increased. High blood pressure has become the second most common reason for medical office visits in the United States."

    Citation source:

  • October 8, 2013 - World Health Organization's Global Brief on Hypertension

    WHO's Hypertension Brief
    "The Global brief on hypertension, published on the occasion of World Health Day 2013, describes why, in the early 21st century, hypertension is a global public health issue. It describes how hypertension contributes to the burden of heart disease, stroke and kidney failure and premature death and disability. The document also explains how hypertension is both preventable and treatable and how governments, health workers, civil society, the private sector, families and individuals can join forces to reduce hypertension and its impact."

    Click on the graphic or the following link to read the report now! A Global Brief on Hypertension

  • October 7, 2013 - Ngram Viewer: Hypertension, Heart Disease and Stroke (1988 - 2008)

    Ngram Viewer - hypertension, heart disease and stroke
    Created by Betty C. Jung using Google's Ngram Viewer @
    As a follow-up to yesterday's posting, I decided to narrow the Ngram viewer to look at the 20-year period between 1988 and 2008. This line graph extends the time period beyond what was shown in yesterday's posting.

    While stroke remains a topic of greater interest, compared to heart disease and hypertension, this narrowed search shows that hypertension interest is greater than for heart disease. A possible explanation for this (at least I hope this is true) is the growing interest in preventing rather than just treating disease.

    Nevertheless, I do need to clarify that hypertension should not be considered a disease, per se, but rather a medical condition when left untreated becomes a factor in the development of heart disease and stroke. Thus, it can be said that anyone searching the literature about heart disease and/or stroke would most certainly be searching for information, as well, about factors contributing to these diseases, of which hypertension is a culprit for both.

    Of course, with the CDC providing a geographic analysis of avoidable deaths (October 1 posting) from heart disease, stroke and hypertensive disease should set the stage for developing strategies to address all three health issues.

    From a prevention perspective, it would make a lot of sense to target hypertension since it is a factor for both heart disease and stroke. In essence, controlling/treating blood pressure would prevent the development of heart disease and stroke, now the first and fourth causes of death in the U.S., not to mention many other countries as well.

  • October 4, 2013 - Ngram Viewer: Hypertension, Heart Disease and Stroke (1800 - 2000)

    Ngram Viewer - hypertension, heart disease and stroke
    Created by Betty C. Jung using Google's Ngram Viewer @
    Every so often I like to what Google's Ngram Viewer has to show about particular topics of interest. In this case, how frequently have the topics of hypertension, heart disease and stroke shown up in the literature over time?

    Looking at the past 208 years of literature, compliments of Google, as compared to heart disease and hypertension, stroke has been of great interest. It is understandably why. In 1900, stroke was one of the ten leading causes of death. Stroke remains a challenging disease to conquer since survivors are usually left with some degree of disability. stroke mortality
    Graphic source: LE Magazine, September 2004 - As We See It: How Humans Died Last

    It should be noted, however, that while stroke has been the 3rd leading cause of death in the U.S. for the longest time, the National Centers for Health Statistics 2011 preliminary death data released in October 2012 showed that Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases have supplanted Stroke as the 3rd leading cause of disease ( Hoyert DL, Xu JQ. Deaths: Preliminary data for 2011. National vital statistics reports; vol 61 no 6. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2012. p. 4)

  • October 3, 2013 - Avoidable Deaths

    Rates* of avoidable death from heart disease, stroke, and hypertensive disease, by county United States, 2008-2010

    US Map of Avoidable CVD deaths
    Graphic source:

    The 9/6/2013 MMWR article,"Vital Signs: Avoidable Deaths from Heart Disease, Stroke, and Hypertensive Disease United States, 2001-2010" introduces the concept of "avoidable deaths."

    "Deaths attributed to lack of preventive health care or timely and effective medical care can be considered avoidable. In this report, avoidable causes of death are either preventable, as in preventing cardiovascular events by addressing risk factors, or treatable, as in treating conditions once they have occurred. Although various definitions for avoidable deaths exist, studies have consistently demonstrated high rates in the United States. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of U.S. deaths (approximately 800,000 per year) and many of them (e.g., heart disease, stroke, and hypertensive deaths among persons aged <75 years) are potentially avoidable."

    * Per 100,000 population. Rates are averaged over the 2008-2010 period and age-standardized to the U.S. standard 2000 population. Rates are spatially smoothed to enhance the stability of rates in counties with small populations.
    Avoidable deaths from heart disease, stroke, and hypertensive disease are defined as all deaths occurring in persons aged <75 years with an underlying cause of ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, hypertensive disease, or chronic rheumatic heart disease.

    By county, the highest avoidable death rates in 2010 were concentrated primarily in the southern Appalachian region and much of Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Oklahoma, whereas the lowest rates were located in the West, Midwest, and Northeast census regions.

    Source citation:

    For more information, see Cardiovascular Disease

  • October 2, 2013 - The Global Threat of Hypertension

    Global Hypertension Prevalence, 2008
    Graphic source:
    On April 7, 2013, the World Health Organization picked hypertension as its main health focus for this year.
    • "Worldwide, at least one in three adults suffers from high blood pressure. That amounts to 68 million adults in the U.S. alone.
    • Your blood pressure naturally rises and falls a bit during the day, but permanent high blood pressure is a dangerous condition that increases your chance of heart disease, heart attacks, strokes, kidney failure, and even blindness.
    • Blood pressure is the force of the blood against the walls of your arteries. It's an indicator of how hard your heart is working. Measured in milligrams of mercury, your blood pressure is recorded in two numbers. The top number, systolic pressure, is measured when blood is being ejected from the heart during a beat; the bottom, diastolic pressure, is the pressure in the arteries in between beats, when the valve above the heart is closed.
    • Aside from taking medications, there's quite a lot you can do to lower your blood pressure: eat less salt, drink responsibly, eat a balanced diet, maintain a healthy weight, don't smoke, and exercise regularly."
    • Citation source:
  • October 1, 2013 - Hypertension is 2nd only to smoking as a cause of preventable deaths

    Preventable causes of death in the U.S.

    Hypertension, 2nd only to smoking
    Graphic source: Danaei G, et al. The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors. PLoS Med 2009;6:e10000058.

    We all know that smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths, but what's second? Hypertension (high blood pressure)!

    I just love this bar graph, which shows all the individual risk factors for health conditions that cause disease. While all these factors contribute to the development of diseases, smoking is responsible for a number of diseases, while hypertension is primarily responsible for causing cardiovascular disease, the #1 cause of death in the U.S. and in many other countries. It should be noted that hypertension is also responsible for cerebrovascular disease - stroke.

    We can do something about all these factors simply by changing our health habits! Of course, that is easier said than done. So, in the coming weeks I will be devoting all my postings to what is currently known about hypertension and what we can do about it.

    Citation source:

  • September 30, 2013 - Yosemite Park

  • September 27, 2013 - Median Earnings for Health Majors

    Median Earnings for Health Majors
  • September 27, 2013 - Median Earnings for Health Majors

    Median Earnings for Health Majors
  • September 26, 2013 - Median Earnings for All Majors

    Median Earnings for all Majors
    Graphic source:
  • September 25, 2013 - The Most (And Least) Lucrative College Majors

    The Most (And Least) Lucrative College Majors "What you major in has a bigger influence over your income than where you go to school, according to Anthony Carnevale, an economist at Georgetown University. The graph below is based on Carnevale's research and it shows the huge range in median earnings for people with different majors."
    Graphic source:

    Graphic source: What is it Worth? The Economic Value of College Majors, from

  • September 24, 2013 - Privacy Concerns of Internet Users

    Online privacy concerns
    Graphic source:
    According to TRUSTe's 3rd US Consumer Data Privacy Study Advertising Edition study:
    • "...rising privacy concerns among online adults. 9 in 10 consider the issue to be really (55%) or somewhat (36%) important and 64% are more concerned than a year ago.
    • ....52% of respondents do not like being tracked by advertisers in order to provide more targeted advertising. While many (41%) are neutral on the topic, few (8%) actively like it.
    • 68% refuse to allow companies to share their information with 3rd parties often or most of the time, down from 76% last year.
    • |
    • 35% have stopped doing business with a company or have stopped using the company's website due to privacy concerns.
    • More internet users this year are taking steps to protect their privacy, such as by manually deleting cookies, automatically deleting them, or using browsing privacy add-ons and features for ad-blocking or anti-tracking.
    • Internet users are most likely to hold themselves responsible for their privacy protection. However, they seem to be recognizing an increasing role in the advertising ecosystem for independent organizations."
    • Citation source:

  • September 23, 2013 - Social Media Sharing

    Social Media Sharing
    Graphic source:
    According to the results of an Ipsos OTX survey,
    • "7 in 10 internet users across 24 countries say they've shared some type of content on social media sites in the past emerge as the content type respondents are most inclined to share, with 43% claiming to have done so in the past month.
    • Beyond pictures, the study finds that opinions, status updates regarding one's activities, and links to articles (each at 26%) are most likely to be shared.
    • Respondents aged under 35 are most likely to share (81%)....Still, about 7 in 10 online users aged 35-49 said they had shared content on social media sites during the past month, as did a majority 55% of respondents aged 50-64.
    • ...women (74%) were more likely than men (69%) to have shared some type of content during the past month.
    • Citation source:

  • September 20, 2013 - Regretting what you post on social media

    Regretting what you post on social media
    Graphic source:
    According to a Findlaw study,
    • "20% of social media users in the US say they've posted something on a social media site that could someday negatively affect an employer's decision on whether to hire them for a job or allow them to stay at an existing job were they to see it.
    • 25-34 age group was most likely to feel this way. Consumers also regret liking brands, according to a separate survey.
    • ...among respondents aged 25-34, 95% reported using social media sites, and of those, 32% said they have posted something that could potentially negatively affect their employment prospects in the future.
    • 23% aged 18-24 have posted something that could hurt them in the future, as have 24% of Blacks and 26% of Hispanics.
    • A number of these respondents have removed photos, videos, comments, personal information or other postings from social media because they were concerned it could result in a negative reaction from their employer or a prospect employer.
    • Overall, 52% of those who had posted potentially burdensome content at some point also reported having removed some posts. Interestingly, the propensity to remove such content was higher among youth than older respondents, showing a clear age trend."
    • Citaiton source:
  • September 19, 2013 - LinkedIn Saavy

    LinkedIn Edge
    Graphic source:

  • September 18, 2013 - Consumer Online Privacy Concerns

    Online Private
    Graphic source:
    According to an Euro RSCG Worldwide study of more than 7,000 consumers in 19 countries:
    • "The majority of consumers of all ages across the world feel that people share too much about their personal thoughts and experiences online, with 71% of those 55 and older saying a return to more privacy is needed, and 62% of 35-54-year-olds and 57% of 18-34-year-olds agreeing,
    • Concern that technology is robbing people of their privacy was relatively aligned across all age groups (between 54-57%), though some of that loss of privacy appears to be self-inflicted: among 18-34-year-olds, many regret having posted personal information (39%) or information about a friend or family member (35%) online.
    • Similarly, around half worry that friends or family will share personal information online about them that they don't want to be shared."
    • Citation source:

  • September 17, 2013 - Social Media Sharers' Motivations

    Social media sharers motivation
    Graphic source:
    Social media is an ideal way for people to share what they come across. Just only a few years ago people used to share by sending E-mail forwards to their friends. Now it's just faster to post something on a social network.

    According to an Ipsos Open Thinking Exchange (OTX) April 2013 survey, Why do social media users share content?, they found:

    • ".. a leading 65% said they typically look to share interesting things. While fewer (49%) said they typically seek to share funny things. Americans appear to be more motivated to share funny than important content (43%).
    • In fact, American respondents were more likely than the average respondent across the 24 countries to typically share funny content (49% vs. 43%).
    • Americans more likely to prefer a humorous approach to things than citizens from other countries.
    • In a study released last year, 56% of Americans surveyed said they would prefer their online ads to make them laugh (56%) rather than to just give them the facts (44%).
    • But, on global basis, respondents from the 24 countries tracked said they'd prefer such ads to be straightforward (58%) rather than humorous (42%).
    • ...a more recent survey of US consumers by Lab42 found that a clear majority believe that TV ads that are funny make them more likely to remember a product.
    • Americans other motivations for sharing content on social media include:
      • To share unique things (37%, versus the global average of 29%);
      • To let others know what they're doing (34%, compared to the 22% average);
      • To add their support to a cause, an organization or a belief (32%, versus 29%); and
      • To let others know what they believe in and who they really are (32%, versus 37%).
    • Citation source:
  • September 16, 2013 - How Do People Spend Their Time Online?

    Time spent online
    Graphic source: Using Social Media to Advance Public Health Webinar from ASTHO,Food Marketing Workgroup, and NPlan 9/10/2013
  • September 13, 2013 - Social Networking Demographics

    Social Networking demographics
    Graphic source:
    According to the Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project:
    • "After leveling out in late 2012, usage of social networking sites by online adults is back on the rise. As of May 2013, 72% of online adults reported using at least one social networking site,..., up from 67% in December 2012. While every age group showed growth, the biggest increases were found among older age groups.
    • 43% of internet users aged 65 and older reported being social networking site users as of May, a large jump from 32% at the end of 2012; and 60% of internet users aged 50-64 used social networks as of May, up from 52% in December. Both represent the highest levels of adoption since Pew began tracking social networking site use in February 2005.
    • In fact, social networking use by online adults is now at its highest point, thanks to growth among those older populations. For younger users, the latest trends are more mixed. The study indicates that 78% of internet users aged 30-49 are using social networking sites, the highest proportion on record, but up only a point from December 2012. And while adoption among internet users aged 18-29 increased from 83% to 89% during that time period, it hasn't yet rebounded to its peak level from August 2012 (92%).
    • Adoption is higher among Hispanics (80%) than African-Americans (75%) and white non-Hispanics (70%);
    • Women report a slightly higher adoption rate (74%) than men (70%); Those without a high school education are the least likely to be using social networks (67%), though there is little gap between other educational attainment levels (72-73%);
    • Respondents with an annual household income (HHI) of less than $30,000 a year report a 75% adoption rate, compared with 71% among those with HHI of at least $75,000; and Urban residents (74%) are more likely to be using social networks than suburban (71%) and rural respondents (69%).
    • Separately, the Pew study takes a look at Twitter use among online adults, finding that it has grown to 18% adoption as of May. While that's more than double the rate from 2010 (8%)
    • Twitter use is particularly high among online Hispanics (28%), African-Americans (27%) and 18-29-year-olds (30%).... Usage also tends to increase alongside educational attainment and household income level.
    • Citation source:
  • September 12, 2013 - Battery-dependent Nation

    College Students and their Gadgets
    Graphic source:
    "According to the latest College Explorer study from re:fuel, the average 18-34-year-old college student owns 7 tech devices (6.9 to be precise), up from 6.4 last year. The laptop computer is the most commonly owned device, by 85% of the college student population, with smartphone penetration nearing 70% and tablets (36%) more widespread than cell phones (33%). Video game consoles are also popular, owned by roughly two-thirds of the representative sample of college students.

    Students are engaging with a number of different applications on their smartphones and tablets. More than 6 in 10 claim to regularly use games (73%), music (67%), entertainment (64%) and social networking (64%) apps, with a majority also putting photo and video (53%) apps to use. Interestingly, productivity apps are on the low end of the totem pole, with less than 1 in 5 saying they regularly use them.

    Using those apps takes time, and college students are spending more of it with their devices. On average, they report spending 0.8 hours with a tablet, up from half-an-hour last year. And they're spending 3.6 hours a day with their cell phones and smartphones (presumably more on smartphones), up from 3.3 hours last year. By contrast, they're spending less time with computers, TVs, handheld gaming devices, and e-readers."
    Citation source:

    And, this is the reason why I do not allow electronics in the classroom.

  • September 11, 2012 - 12th Anniversary of 9/11/2001

    9/11 remembered -
    9/11 we will never forget

    Let us never forget all the innocent lives that were lost on that fateful day, and once again thank all the brave civil servants who died in the line duty. Many thanks to for these wonderful graphics.

    See 9/11 Commemorations and Memorials

  • September 10 , 2013 - How Social Media is changing search engine optimization

    SEO Factors
    Graphic & Citation source:
  • September 9 , 2013 - Search Engine Optimization (SEO) 101

    SEO Ranking Factors
    Graphic & Citation source:
  • September 6, 2013 - Job Hunting Tips

    Jobhunting Tips
    Graphic source:

  • September 5, 2013 - Congratulations Graduate! Eleven Reasons Why I Will Never Hire You.

  • September 4 , 2013 - Don't wait till you graduate to get a job, get one while you are in college!

    Graphic & Citation source:
    Finally, this, perhaps, is the most helpful pointer to come out from this report - do an internship while you are in college; or any kind of work experience you can put on your resume. It is a jungle out there, and to the victor belong the spoils. When you apply for a job requiring a college degree, what else can you bring to the table??

    So ends my coverage of this most important report. You can read the entire report by clicking on the link below. As for my advice? Look at what I highlighted in red. Best wishes on a productive career that you can be happy with!

    Citation source:'s The Role of Higher Education in Career Development: Employer Perceptions, December 2012

  • September 3, 2013 - What Employers Are Looking for in College Graduates

    Graphic & Citation source:
    So, I am now coming to a close on this mini-series of analyzing the findings of's "The Role of Higher Education in Career Development: Employer Perceptions" (December 2012). During the past two weeks I have highlighted those slides I thought were of the utmost importance to college students today, and for those who actually pay for the tuition, whether it is the students themselves, or the parents who work endlessly to pay the bills.

    Today's slide is one of the summary slides that highlights the real message from the report, and that is, what are the employers looking for in a college graduate? Basically, see the section highlighted in yellow. It's actually a simple message, and that is, hone those writing and oral communication skills, learn to effectively multi-task, be adaptable and learn to make decisions and problem-solve.

    Citation source:'s The Role of Higher Education in Career Development: Employer Perceptions, December 2012

  • August 30, 2013 - Regardless of what industry you would like to work in, they will check for your online presence!

    Graphic & Citation source:
    This particular slide shows that regardless of which industry you decide to look for a job in, hiring personnel will check out your online presence. So, be careful about what you post online.

    Citation source:'s The Role of Higher Education in Career Development: Employer Perceptions, December 2012

  • August 29, 2013 - Employers in 6 states cannot ask for your social media password!

    Graphic & Citation source:
    If you look for a job in California, Illinois, Delaware, Maryland, Michigan and New Jersey, you are in luck! Potential employers cannot ask for your Facebook or Twitter passwords. (

    Of course, that leaves the 44 states in which there are no laws that say potential employers can't do this. So, if you are going to put anything online, just take it for granted that it's an open book. And, if you don't feel like having an open book online, for everyone to see, then don't put that stuff online!

    Here you see that if potential employers are going to search for you, they are going to check LinkedIn, Facebook, other social media and do some googling to see what kind of surprises they can come up with. Don't let them find surprises, especially surprises that even surprise you! I have heard enough horror stories of people who "want my life back" because their online reputation have been electronically damaged.

    Even though you cannot be anonymous online if you want to find a decent job these days, there are, unfortunately, cretins that hide out on the fringes of the Internet wreaking havoc that range from cyber-bullying to identity theft. So, it never hurts to be a little wary of how you get around online and what you do while you are there.

    Citation source:'s The Role of Higher Education in Career Development: Employer Perceptions, December 2012

  • August 28, 2013 - If you look for a job, potential employers will most likely look for you online!

    Graphic & Citation source:
    Let's face it, the Internet is no place to keep a secret. Once any information about you is out there, it's out there, for better or worse. So, it's important to think before you post, as well as be aware of what is out there about you.

    This slide shows that 42 to 64% of hiring managers do their intel online. Google has just made it so simple to search anyone, so why not? Companies save so much money on background checks when they can easily do it from the comfort of their desktop.

    The flip side of this is, they better be able to find "something" about you online, and just hope that it's nothing but good things. Basically, this means you have to diligently maintain a positive presence online that even your grandmother would be proud of. Also, you are not being vain when you google yourself, you are just being proactive. Better you find the shameful and embarrassing things "someone" posted about you and clean it up than being confronted by the "What was this about?" question. Online reputation has become a big cottage industry, and you could just save yourself a lot grief by being a bit more discriminating about what you post. What happens "wherever" should stay "wherever," not online.

    Citation source:'s The Role of Higher Education in Career Development: Employer Perceptions, December 2012

  • August 27, 2013 - How different industries value work experienc

    Graphic & Citation source:
    Work experience is always important. The longer you are away from your college education, the more work experience counts toward career development. While it is understandable why graduate and certificate program enrollment is highly valued for the Education industry, it is very interesting that volunteer work in a community organization or nonprofit would count so highly as well.

    Educational institutions are into being part of the communities they are geographically located in because they want to foster good will while recruiting for students to attend their institutions. Those who know how to cultivate community relationships can cement the ties universities would like to have with potential sponsors and donors as well.

    Colleges and universities like to see themselves as the cultural center for the community, offering programs and events that draw attention to the good works they do to enhance the community they are part of. Most schools aggressively recruit for the best athletes to play on their school teams, generating positive press that works towards recruiting good students who want to be part of such illustrious institutions of learning. They also offer academic expertise through the faculty that teach there, some who may be leaders in their field of study, bringing in research monies and professional acclaim, thus, elevating their prestige.

    Thus, those with community-based work experience know all about fundraising, coalition building, generating good will and cultivating donors that will bring in funding so the good work can continue.

    Citation source:'s The Role of Higher Education in Career Development: Employer Perceptions, December 2012

  • August 26, 2013 - Study hard, but get some job experience while attending college

    Graphic & Citation source:
    What does this slide show? The importance of staying "productively" busy while attending college. While paid internships are nice, such opportunities are few and far between. Regardless of whether you are paid or not, getting work experience is key to making a good impression on those looking to hire you.

    Internships in a related field means "work experience" in the field you want to eventually get a full time job in. And, because "someone" gave you a chance (even if it's unpaid), hiring managers would be more willing to give you a chance, too, that is, provided you did a good job with your internship and was smart enough to cultivate a good relationship with whoever was supervising you. If you impressed your internship supervisor enough to vouch for you, so much the better.

    Good references give you leverage, but it's another positive impact factor in the big equation about whether or not you are worth it for them to hire you. But, please remember that references are "earned advantages" , as I call them. Don't ever put down a person's name as a reference without first asking for the privilege to do so. Remember, no one is ever obligated to give you a good reference. You have to earn that through diligent work.

    Note the emphasis on this slide is about impact. While working in a job unrelated to your career path has only a slight positive impact, it basically has no impact, which is fine, because that's better than a negative impact, provided there are no other factors to consider.

    Continuing your education has a positive impact because it shows that you are good at academic work and that you are ambitious in learning more content and skills that would benefit a potential employer. The fact that you have been accepted to a graduate program implies you did well enough in your undergraduate studies to get into a graduate program. Being enrolled in a certification program shows you are serious about your career aspirations. Also, keep in mind that employers won't have to spend the money to provide additional training if you are coming on board with all those advanced skills and knowledge!

    Perhaps, the most important point from this slide is not working has a negative impact, unless of course you have a GPA of 4.0, which would indicate your total commitment to excelling academically. If you have less than stellar grades while not working, be prepared to justify your grades to a potential employer who only has your academic transcript to go by. How would you answer the question about all those Cs and Ds when you are asked, "Did you work hard for these grades?"

    Citation source:'s The Role of Higher Education in Career Development: Employer Perceptions, December 2012

  • August 25, 2013 - is now 14 Years Old!

    13 years and counting, thanks for visiting over the years!

    Happy 14th birthday!, Source:
    It is hard to believe that it has been 14 years since I published the first webpages that turned into this Web site. Many thanks to the thousands of visitors who contributed millions of hits during the past 14 years, and for all the nice comments along the way. I will continue to strive to make this Web site a worthwhile place to spend your time and find credible public health and health information. Thank you so much!

  • August 23, 2013 - Best College Majors, by Industry

    Graphic & Citation source:
    Here is some useful information about choosing a college major. Your major may be a prime consideration for those industries you may want to work for in the future. While it seems that a "business" or "information technology" major can put you in the running for many industries (everyone has to run a business and everyone uses computers), they won't beat out those with a desirable major for a particular industry, thus giving these people a competitive edge.

    For example, if you are thinking of working in the health care industry, majoring in nursing is smart because it is such a desirable area of expertise in the eyes of those who hire in this area. Most companies involved with providing health care need nurses to provide the daily care their customers (patients) need. It's a simple as that. So, you should explore what you really enjoy doing and find a major that is compatible with what you won't ever get tired of doing, hour after hour, day after day, year after year, etc.

    So, this is the way you should view this slide when planning your college studies. And, it is always important to keep in mind that the occupational outlook can change rather rapidly. For example, in the field of technology, who would have ever thought that a degree in information systems would be considered as one with the worst employment outlook in 2013? But, it was voted #1 ( with an unemployment rate of 14.7%!

    Citation source:'s The Role of Higher Education in Career Development: Employer Perceptions, December 2012

  • August 22, 2013 - College reputation counts

    Graphic & Citation source:
    Perhaps the best news from this particular slide is going to a public college will not compromise your chances of getting the job you want. Public colleges have their advantages, one of which because they are usually large institutions they can provide diversity at many levels, from student population to course offerings. You get a chance to interact with more people, exposing you to many diverse views and perspectives, all good for helping you to develop tolerance of differences and learning to value the positives in those differences.

    Some may find such an environment intimidating and may choose smaller institutions in which they can get more personal attention, which may be harder at massively large colleges. Nevertheless, you should be able to get a good education at any institution that is appropriately accredited. You can check to see if the colleges you are considering is listed in: The U.S. Department of Education's Database of Postsecondary Institutions and Programs. For certain professions, it is essential that you graduate from an accredited program or you may not be able to sit for certifying and/or licensing exams, which are essential for you to practice in that area.

    What is not reflected in this slide is the finding that going to an institution that is widely known is better than going to one that no one has ever heard of. Given how mobile we are these days, most public colleges are known outside of their states and regional areas, and that can be a major plus. There is a higher likelihood that you may run into a fellow alum from a larger college than you would if you attended smaller institutions. It's like being a New Yorker. No matter where you go around the world, you will most likely run into someone who either has lived and/or worked there. Instant camaraderie!

    In any institution of higher learning students should take advantage of their time there to connect with as many people as they can. This can happen while attending classes to working on school, extracurricular and volunteer activities. Good relationships during college can pay off in the long run. This study found that those in position to hire will consider employee referrals. This means that someone you know well, that you have taken the time to get to know, may some day provide you with an opportunity to get hired.

    For example, if you have worked on class projects with others, you really do get to know what they are like. I can tell you that in such situations no one likes slackers. And, that is truer in the work environment. You have to carry your own weight and be willing to help others when the need arises. If you are not into team work and collaboration you may have a hard time finding a good fit with many work environments existing today.

    Citation source:'s The Role of Higher Education in Career Development: Employer Perceptions, December 2012

  • August 21, 2013 - Does size matter?

    Graphic & Citation source:
    When it comes to seeking employment, size does matter, that is, company size. What kind of work environment makes you feel most comfortable in? Where do you fit in? Employers are interested in finding people who can fit in to what is already there. After all, everyone who is already working there has been handpicked to work there. Employers have a certain workforce sense that works best for them. So, you can understand why they want to keep things as they are, on a smooth and even keel. They don't want to play referee among feuding workers because, after all, they have a company to run, and manager don't exactly enjoy being playground monitors.

    Especially in this era of teamwork and collaboration, being flexible and adaptable are skills worth learning and practicing. Such skills are highly prized in smaller companies that value the "family-oriented" (or, mom and pop enterprises) atmosphere. If you have siblings you are already way ahead of the game, especially, if you all survived to adulthood without severe emotional injuries. Remember, all companies started out small.

    Researchers actually looked at what companies are looking for, by company size. Naturally, larger companies may be able to pay you more, but then they expect a lot more from you, thus, internships and working while in college count highly with them. This is not to say that small companies are not as picky as larger companies.

    But, small companies can offer a bit more freedom about job responsibilities that larger companies cannot. This is why they would value volunteer experience and extracurricular activities more than larger companies. Those who volunteer and participate in extracurricular activities are a bit more idealistic and social than those who don't participate.

    These are people who get involved, even though they are not paid, in activities and causes they believe in, in which they feel that their input and energy can make a difference in a cause, in the lives of others, or move something forward for the greater good. These are wonderful attributes to have that smaller companies want, and desperately need. They want creative people with fire in their bellies, willing to put in the time and energy to grow and move their company forward, doing whatever needs to be done! Good work ethic does not always come with a paycheck, but being productive has its own rewards.

    Citation source:'s The Role of Higher Education in Career Development: Employer Perceptions, December 2012

  • August 20, 2013 - Essential skills: Time and stress management

    Work experience, no matter what your college major is
    Graphic & Citation source:
    An analysis was performed looking at the various industries one could work in. Regardless of what industry you would like to work in, doing an internship relevant to where you eventually want to work is vital. Especially for those interested in media/communication, it is absolutely essential. But, then again, internships are at the top of every industry studied, followed by work during college.

    Why are they looking for graduates who did an internship and/or worked while in college? What they are looking for are qualities that make for good workers, people who can manage their time and their stress.

    What employers are interested in is how well you can handle multiple tasks. Only those with good time management can handle multiple tasks and do them well. This means knowing how to prioritize your time. It means being able to distinguish what is a want and what is a need. Good time management means First, do what needs to be done, and then doing what you want to do - if there is enough time. Ask anyone who is good at procrasinating. They know exactly what they need to do, but they don't want to!

    So, if you are stressing out about how you can possibly do everything you "have to" do, it may be more of knowing what's a need and what's a want, rather than getting frazzled over trying to make a decision to do it all. Yes, stress management is a definite skill you need to learn while in college, if you haven't done so already. Of course, if you manage your time well (prioritizing what absolutely needs to be done first, etc.), your stress will most likely decrease as well.

    For more info, see Stress Management

    Citation source:'s The Role of Higher Education in Career Development: Employer Perceptions, December 2012

  • August 19, 2013 - The Role of Higher Education in Career Development: Employer Perceptions

    Working while attending college
    Graphic & Citation source:
    In December 2012, released the report,"The Role of Higher Education in Career Development: Employer Perceptions." Unfortunately, this report did not get the press I thought it should have gotten. I thought it was a well-done report that raised critical issues about what a college education should achieve.

    Economic factors play a critical role as to whether or not a person receives a college education. As an educator, I contend that if you can do the work required to earn a college degree you should go for it. This is simply because I believe in the value of getting as good an education you are capable of.

    A college education is expensive, so it really becomes a matter of whether or not it is worth the expense and time you would invest in this 4-year (or more) activity. From a practical standpoint, you are hoping that it is an investment that's going to pay off in the long run. In my recent postings, August 3-13, I have presented statistics indicating that earning a bachelor's degree does pay off, over the course of a lifetime. But, given the bad economy, you are probably wondering, does it really, really pay off?

    Well, what I like about this particular report is that it is based on a survey of those who do the hiring - managers, human resources personnel, executives. These are basically the people who can really tell you what the value of a college education is in the job market. Their feedback is vital because they are the ones who are investing their company's money in you when they hire you. So, do they think a college education is important? What are they looking for in those they hire? You will find out, and you will know exactly what you need to do!

    So, I am going to highlight 12 of 85 slides from this report that deserve your attention, whether you are a student, teacher/professor, or parent. Frankly, anyone who is interested in Higher Education should probably read the report that is available online (see citation source below for the link). I will give you an overview of what I think are the poignant points from this report.

    If you have earned your college degree and you go looking for work, what do you think employers look for? Internships and employment while in college. Word to the wise? If you are in school now, make sure you get some work experience into the mix. It would be nice to get paid for what you do, but don't let unpaid opportunities deter you. Volunteer experience and extracurricular activities count, too! Work experience counts a lot when you are looking for job. As it is true for ANY job seeker, employers want to hire someone who already has a job. (Only the Employed Need to Apply:")

    Citation source:'s The Role of Higher Education in Career Development: Employer Perceptions, December 2012

  • August 16, 2013 - Greetings from New York City's Sofia Downstairs - How 2BA New Yorker!

    How to be a New Yorker
    Photo: Ellen Chin

  • August 15, 2013 - Greetings from New York City!

    Betty captured by a cartoonist, New York City 2013

  • August 14, 2013 - Greetings from Everclear at Mohegan Sun's Wolf Den, Uncasville, CT

    Everclear, 2013 Mohegan Sun
    Photo: Betty C. Jung

  • August 13, 2013 - U.S. Census - Educational Attainment Search

    U.S. Census Educational Attainment
    Graphic source:
    The U.S. Census provides a search page in which you see how much you can earn according to your college major. Just click on the graphic to access this page, and then choose your major.
  • August 12, 2013 - U.S. Census - Life Earnings by Field of Bachelor's Degree and Occupation Group

    U.S. Census - BS earnings
    Graphic source:
    According to the U.S. Census "Synthetic Work-Life Earnings by Field of Bachelor's Degree and Occupation Group for Full-Time, Year-Round Workers Whose Highest Attainment is a Bachelor's Degree":

    "A bachelor's degree holder can expect to earn about $2.4 million over his or her work life. However, not everyone with the same college major and level of education earns the same amount. Engineering majors make the most of any college major, at $3.5 million, but this varies widely between engineering majors who work in service occupations ($1.4 million) and those who work in management occupations ($4.1 million). Education majors make the least, at $1.8 million, and no occupation for education majors provides higher earnings than the average for bachelor's degree holders. For more information: The classification of fields of degree and occupations"

    SOURCE: Julian, Tiffany, "Work-Life Earnings by Field of Degree and Occupation for People With a Bachelor's Degree: 2011," American Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau, October 2012, available at

  • August 9, 2013 - Education and Wages

    Education and Wages
    Graphic source:
    According to NYT's 2/19/13's "College Premium: Better Pay, Better Prospects," C. Rampell reports, "...people with college diplomas are much more likely to get jobs, period, than people without the credential. Part of college graduates' income premium, then, comes from the fact that they are just more likely to be employed in a typical week. They are probably more likely to work the number of desired hours they wish to work, too, according to Gary Burtless, a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution.

    You can see this in the unemployment numbers: The jobless rate for people with a bachelor's degree was 3.7 percent in January, versus 8.1 percent for those with no more than a high school diploma.

    Census estimates of median annual earnings help capture the college income premium. In 2011, the median male college graduate earned 1.95 times as much as the median male whose highest educational attainment was a high school diploma. In 1991, that ratio was 1.76. For women, the ratio is up, but not by as much: It was 2.03 in 2011 versus 1.99 in 1991, and it dipped in the intervening years.

    "... earnings ratios over the last two decades: College can bring a lot of debt, yes. But these figures serve as a reminder that college also brings huge returns relative to how you might otherwise invest your tuition money."
    Citation Source:

  • August 8, 2013 - Education and Employment Trends

    Education and Employment Trends
    Graphic source:
    According to C. Rampell's "Life Is O.K., if You Went to College"
    • "Despite all the questions about whether college is worth it or not, college graduates have gotten through the recession and lackluster recovery with remarkable resilience.
    • The unemployment rate for college graduates in April was a mere 3.9 percent, compared to 7.5 percent for everyone else. And among all segments of workers sorted by educational attainment, college graduates are the only group that has more people employed today than when the recession started."
    • >Citation source:
  • August 7, 2013 - Education and Employment Share

    Education and Employment Share
    Graphic source:
    According to C. Rampell's "Life Is O.K., if You Went to College"
    • "The number of college-educated workers with jobs has risen by 9.1 percent since the beginning of the recession. Those with a high school diploma and no further education are the near mirror image, with employment down 9 percent on net. Workers without even a high school diploma have seen their employment levels fall 14.1 percent.
    • Finally, for those with some college but no bachelor's degree, employment fell during the recession and is now back to exactly where it began: There were 34,992,000 workers with some college employed in December 2007, and there are 34,992,000 in the same boat today.
    • In other words, college-educated workers have gobbled up all of the net job gains. In fact there are now more employed college graduates than there are employed high school graduates and high school dropouts put together.
    • It's worth noting, too, that even young college graduates are finding jobs, if you look at the most recent cut of data on this subgroup (which is from 2011)."
    • Citation source:
  • August 6, 2013 - Unemployment, by Educational Attainment

    Education and Unemployment
    Graphic source:
    According to C. Rampell's "Life Is O.K., if You Went to College"
    • " 2011, the unemployment rate for people in their 20s with college degrees or more education was 5.7 percent (for those whose highest credential was no more than a bachelor's, the number was 5.8 percent). For those with only a high school diploma or G.E.D., it was more than twice as high, at 16.2 percent.
    • There is ample evidence that employers are hiring college-educated workers to perform jobs that don't actually require college-level skills, positions like receptionists, file clerks, waitresses and car rental agents. This form of underemployment might be one reason why we see so much growth in employment among college graduates despite the fact that the bulk of the jobs created in the last few years have been low-wage and low-skilled.
    • Clearly positions in retail and food services are not the best use of the hard-earned (and expensive!) skills of college-educated workers. But at least those graduates are finding work and income of some kind, unlike their less-educated peers. And as the economy improves, college graduates will be better situated to find promotions to jobs that do use their more advanced skills and that pay better wages.
    • Citation source:
  • August 5, 2013 - The Value of Education

    Value of Education
    Graphic source:
    According to New York Times 6/7/13's "The Premium From a College Degree":
    • "...the economy feels very different depending on your level of educational attainment. For workers over the age of 25 who have a bachelor's degree, the unemployment rate is 3.8 percent. For workers without a high school diploma, it is 11.1 percent.
    • Still, in recent years, the burden of student-loan debt has raised questions about whether college is really worth it, particularly if a given person goes to college, takes on significant amounts of debt, but does not get diploma. New research from the Hamilton Project, a research group based at the Brookings Institution, says that on average, the answer is still yes.
    • Degree-holders earn more than 80 percent more than their peers with just a high school diploma, up from about 40 percent more as of the late 1970s.
    • But millions of students attend college without graduating, and the workplace does not reward them nearly as richly. Their unemployment rate is 6.5 percent. And while they tend to earn more than workers with just a high school diploma, they make less than workers with a full degree.
    • Collectively,... over the last three decades, the value of college has increased substantially, with all of the gains going to those who actually complete the four-year degree.
    • Students who go to but do not graduate from college still earn about $100,000 more over the course of their lifetimes than their high school-educated peers, the authors calculate.
    • The rate of return on that investment in school, exceeds the historical return on practically any conventional investment, including stocks, bonds, and real estate,...
    • Granted, that student is still much, much better off with a college degree. Over a lifetime of work, on average, a college graduate would earn over $500,000 more than a worker with just a high school diploma."
    • Citation source:
  • August 2, 2013 - What is a college education worth?

    During hard economic times like we have been experiencing since 2008, parents, who usually foot the bill for their children's higher education, wonder if it's really worth the 100K they will be paying for college tuition costs PER child.

    For those who are paying their own way, these "part-time students" find there just isn't enough hours in a day to do what they have to do, between working to pay for tuition costs, paying the tuition, and doing the work for their college courses. If they resort to borrowing money, it usually means they will be starting life, post-graduation, in debt.

    For the coming weeks I will be looking at the value of a college education. What do statistics have to say about getting a college education? Is it really worth it, and if so, in what ways? And, once I have completed this exploration, I will get back to public health issues, continuing where I left off before May & June's focus on critical women's health issues.

  • August 1, 2013 - ALMA Telescope - Sculptor Galaxy, a.k.a NGC 253

    Sculptor Galaxy
    Graphic Source:
  • July 31, 2013 - NASA - Aurora Australis (Southern Lights)

    NASA -  Aurora Australis Southern Lights
    Graphic Source:
  • July 30, 2013 - Greetings from Chicago's Field Museum - Sue the T. Rex!

    Betty C. Jung with Sue the T. Rex 2013
    Photo: Lee Jung

  • July 29, 2013 - Greetings from Chicago's Field Museum - Sue the T. Rex!

    Betty C. Jung with Sue the T. Rex 2013
    Photo: Lee Jung

  • July 26, 2013 - Greetings from Chicago's Field Museum - Aztec Solar Calendar!

    Betty C. Jung with Aztec Solar Calendar Calendar 2013
    Photo: Lee Jung

  • July 25, 2013 - Greetings from Chicago's Field Museum - Ancient Americas Exhibit!

    Betty C. Jung getting some culture at the Field Museum 2013
    Photo: Lee Jung

  • July 24, 2013 - Greetings from Chicago's Field Museum - Dinosaurs !

    Betty C. Jung Spending Time with the Dinosaurs 2013
    Photo: Lee Jung

  • July 23, 2013 - Greetings from Chicago's Cloud Gate at Millennium Park - Take 2!

    Betty C. Jung at Chicago's Cloud Gate 2013
    Photo: Betty C. Jung

  • July 22, 2013 - Greetings from Chicago's Cloud Gate at Millenium Park!

    Betty C. Jung at Chicago's Cloud Gate 2013
    Photo: Betty C. Jung

  • July 20, 2013 - Man Lands on the Moon in 1969 - 44 years ago!

    Aldrin plants US flag on the moon 1969
    Photo source:
  • July 19, 2013 - Greetings from New York City's Empire State Building!

    Betty C. Jung at the Empire State Building in NYC 2013
    Photo: Lee Jung

  • July 18, 2013 - SEO Rankings

    SEO rankings
    Graphic source:
    Searchmetrics has also documented their findings about what well-positioned web pages on Google have in common, and what distinguishes them from pages that are lower-ranked.
    Citation source:
  • July 17, 2013 - SEO Factors

    SEO factors
    Graphic source:
    According to Searchmetrics, Search engine optimisation (SEO) is no longer about the quality of backlinks to your Web presence, but all about "how important social media signals are to a strong SEO ranking, with well-positioned URLs almost always having a high number of Likes, shares, tweets and +1s.

    Indeed, seven of the ten most important factors in SEO ranking now come from social media."
    Citation source:

  • July 16, 2013 - Windows XP still rules

    June 2013 Net Apps
    Graphic source:

    According to's "Microsoft issues partners Windows XP phase-out marching orders", once again you have to wonder why Microsoft doesn't see the writing on the wall.

    "Starting April 8, 2014, there will be no more patches or updates -- including security ones -- issued for Windows XP. This is despite the fact that Windows XP still had an estimated 37 percent share of all desktop operating systems as of June 2013....Microsoft and its partners would need to migrate 586,000 PCs per day over the next 273 days in order to get rid of all PCs running Windows XP." Citation source:

    Here is an example of a big company creating a cash cow and then deciding it's time to cash out. It is obvious that its newest product (Windows 8) is a bust. I love Windows XP because it is so versatile and I can still run DOS-based programs on it when I need to. Windows 7 is good, but I can no longer run the DOS-based programs I have been running for years.

    This means I have to find other programs that do what my DOS-based programs have done superbly. In most instances, it will cost me money to buy these programs, not to mention having to learn how to use the new programs that may not necessarily be any better than what I have used with confidence in the past.

    I can live with having to deal with such inconveniences because Windows 7 is fast and has good features. But, Windows 8? Who came up with that stupid idea? Many people I know who have it say they hate it. And, they only bought it because they had old computers and needed to upgrade.

    Given the current economy, it is hard to expect companies to adopt a new operating system (OS) that requires a major overhaul. This happens with the introduction of each new OS. Programs and applications that work with the previous OS must be abandoned and developers have to be hired to either retrofit existing programs and apps, or come up with new ones, which may not necessarily work better, and may conflict with other existing programs, etc. It's like the proverbial "buying a new sofa" and then having to redo the whole house.

    It would do better to continue to support Windows XP to establish goodwill with loyal customers and to get some input from such loyal users of what they want in a product than to come out with something nobody wants. There is more to life than just making a quick buck. Really.

  • July 15, 2013 - Generational Differences in Data Sharing

    Data Sharing
    Graphic source:

    According to "Millennials More Comfortable Than Their Elders Sharing Personal Data Online" (April 23, 2013 by MarketingCharts):

    • "Millennials (18-34) are getting somewhat comfortable with the idea of personal data sharing, at least when it comes with tangible benefits, according to survey results from the USC Annenberg Center for the Digital Future and Bovitz Inc.
    • 51% of Millennials responding to the survey agreed that they're ok with sharing information with companies as long as they get something in return, compared to 40% of those aged 35 and older. That value-exchange is key: separately, 70% of Millennials (and 77% of the 35+ group) said that no-one should ever be allowed to have access to their personal data or web behavior.
    • More relevant advertising may not be the benefit that respondents are looking for in return for their personal data. Only one-quarter of Millennials said they're ok with trading some of their personal information in exchange for more relevant advertising, although that was higher than the 19% of respondents 35 and older who shared that view.
    • Respondents are generally more willing to trade location info with companies in order to receive coupons or deals for nearby businesses: 56% of Millennials said they would do so, compared to 42% of the older crowd.
    • A recent survey by J.D. Power & Associates and NetBase similarly found that younger respondents were more comfortable than older groups with brands listening in on their online conversations.
    • Other Findings: 48% of Millennials said they visit social networking sites several times a day, compared to 20% of those aged 35 and up.
    • Millennials report regularly contacting an average of 18 people via social networking sites, versus 5 for the 35+ group."
    • Citation source:
  • July 12, 2013 - Horsehead Sculpted in Dust

  • July 11, 2013 - NASA - Timelapse: EARTHEREAL II

  • July 10, 2013 - NASA - Timelapse: EARTHEREAL

  • July 9, 2013 - NASA: Tour of the Moon

  • July 8, 2013 - Best June 23, 2013 Supermoon Photo!

    Supermoon and the Space Needle
    Photo source:
  • July 5, 2013 - CDC's Women's Health Podcasts

    CDC Podcasts
    Graphic source:'s health
    CDC offers a series of podcasts about many women health issues. It's easy to download these and put them on your music player and listen to them on the go, while you are out running or walking.


  • July 4, 2013 - Happy Birthday, America!

    Happy 4th of July
    Graphic source:

  • July 3, 2013 - A Primer for Women's Health: Learn About Your Body in 52 Weeks

    Learn about your body "The Office of Research on Women's Health (ORWH) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is delighted to provide you with "A Primer for Women's Health: Learn about Your Body in 52 Weeks. This online resource aims to promote healthy lifestyles by offering practical guidelines and strategies women can use every day to reduce the risk of developing illnesses or conditions that can affect your quality of life."

    For more information, see Women's Health Index Page

  • July 2, 2013 - Women as Mental Health Services Seekers

    Women's Health 2012 - Mental health services
    Graphic source:
    According to Women's Health USA 2012:

    "In 2009-2010, nearly 31 million, or 13.6 percent of adults in the United States reported receiving mental health treatment in the past year for a mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder other than a substance use disorder. Women were more likely than men to receive treatment or counseling (17.5 versus 9.4 percent), which is roughly commensurate with the higher prevalence of mental illness (excluding substance use disorder) among women. Utilization of mental health services was more common among women with higher educational attainment. Approximately 20 percent of college-educated women reported past year mental health treatment compared to 13.2 percent of women without a high school diploma.

    Over 17 million women aged 18 years and older reported using prescription medication for treatment of a mental or emotional condition, representing 15.1 percent of women, which is almost twice the proportion of men (7.7 percent). Women were also nearly twice as likely as men to report receiving outpatient mental health treatment (8.4 versus 4.6 percent, respectively). Less than 1 percent of men and women received inpatient treatment in 2009-2010.

    In 2009-2010, mental health services were needed, but not received in the previous year, by about 11.5 million adults, corresponding to 5.1 percent of adults in the United States. Women were almost twice as likely as men to have an unmet need for mental health treatment or counseling in the past year (6.6 versus 3.4 percent, respectively. Among women, cost was the most commonly reported reason for not receiving needed services (46.9 percent) followed by the belief that the problem could be handled without treatment (26.5 percent), not having enough time (17.6 percent), and not knowing where to go for treatment (15.1 percent)."

    Citation source:

  • July 1, 2013 - Women as Health Information Seekers

    Women's Health 2012 - Health Information Seekers
    Graphic source:
    According to Women's Health USA 2012:

    "In 2009, 45.5 percent of all adults reported having used the Internet to obtain health information in the past year. Overall, women were more likely than men to have utilized this resource (50.9 versus 39.8 percent, respectively). Internet use for health information also varied by age. Among women, those aged 25-44 years were most likely to use the Internet for health information (63.1 percent) while similar percentages of men, about 40 percent, had used the Internet for health information between 18 and 64 years of age. For both women and men, those aged 65 and older were least likely to use the Internet for health information and there was no significant sex difference among this age group (21.9 and 24.4 percent, respectively).

    Internet use for health information increased greatly with income and education. Among women, two-thirds of those with household incomes of 400 percent or more of poverty had used the Internet for health information in the past year, compared to less than one-third of those with incomes below the poverty level (66.3 versus 29.2 percent, respectively). Similarly, women with a college degree were more than 5 times as likely as women who had not finished high school to have used the Internet for health information (74.6 versus 14.5 percent, respectively; data not shown in graph images or in data tables on this site). With respect to race and ethnicity, Internet use for health information was highest among non-Hispanic White women (57.0 percent) and lowest among Hispanic women (31.9 percent)."

    Citation source:

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    Published on the Web: February 21, 2012
    Updated: 12/11/2022 R10,322
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