Suggested Citation: Jung, B.C. (2012-2016). Annotated Medical Bibliography.
Web document: http://www.bettycjung.net/Databib.htm
Abramson, J. (2005). Overdo$ed America. The Broken Promise of American Medicine NY: Harper Collins. A family practice physician takes a year off from practicing medicine to write this book about where he thinks U.S. healthcare is heading. And, you should listen to what he has to say. Here is an insightful commentary of the disturbing trends in health care today, from the commercialization of health information to the loss of research objectivity by peer-reviewed journals. Sad to say, I agree with him all the way. A true eye-opener of how the pharmaceutical industry has slowly insinuated itself into the fabric of medical care, manipulating medical knowledge, and brainwashing the American public into believing that whatever ails us (and, that's everything) can be taken care with a drug. Abramson's muckracking takes him to where he must re-evaluate the medical knowledge he was taught to hold sacred, and re-analyze the results of biomedical research. He shows how the highest selling drugs today became that way, and how we, health consumers, are duped continuously into believing that the latest drugs and technology are the best, even though they are way too expensive and not that much better than older, less expensive drugs.
Of course, it's no surprise that of the 569 new drugs approved between 1995 and 2000, only 13% are actually new active ingredients that offer a significant improvement over what is currently available (p. 48), and that increased specialization of medicine hasn't really improved the quality of care provided. Then again, I do find the quote, "You can have the experts involved, or you could have people who are purists and impartial judges, but you don't have the expertise" to be somewhat telling of those involved with developing practice guidelines (p. 147). Finally, I do agree with the author, we definitely need more primary care doctors to take care of the whole person that we all are. Read and understand why healthcare reform is a must if we are to survive the 21st century.
Cahalan, Susannah. (2012). Brain on Fire: My Month of Madness. NY: Simon and Schuster. An autobiography written by a New York Post journalistic who suffered from a rare form of an autoimmune brain infection known as anti-NMDA-Receptor Autoimmune Encephalitis. This infection left her with residual memory loss of what happened during one month her illness. Interesting reading. This book will help you understand how complex the brain is and how misdiagnosis could have left the author permanently hospitalized in a mental institution.
Chen, Pauline W. (2007). Final Exam. A Surgeon's Reflections on Mortality NY: Vintage House. A compassionate female surgeon shares the trials and tribulations of being a doctor, along with an inside look at medical school. While explaining why doctors practice in the most scientific of ways, she injects the Art of Medicine into her narrative of a physician's life. It does explain why the arduous medical school regimen breaks the most timid of souls who would seek to heal, and hardens the hearts of many who survive the rigors so they can deal with the most common experience of Life, and the most difficult for many - Death. It explains why some doctors use algorithms to manage the uncertainties of disease processes, and how such rituals save practitioners from the tenuous hold they think they have with exquisite knowledge and skills. No, doctors are not gods, but then, none of us are.
Perhaps, the most beautiful thought to come out of Chen's book is a new perspective of how we should thank Medicine - not for the miracles of prolonging life indefinitely, but just enough so we can get things in order before the evitable - the chance to say good-bye gracefully to Life. What a wonderful book about Medicine and those who strive hard to heal and help us all to face the frailties of the human body!
I found Chen's depiction of what medical students must go through in gross anatomy an eye-opener, and how decades of medical education has managed to dehumanize the study of the human body to spare students of the reality of dealing with what were living human beings. However, Chen does provide updates about the changes made to the medical education curriculum that hopefully will prepare future doctors to become more aware of their role in the lives of their patients and families - it's not just healing, but guiding those in their care through a good death.
There are notes at the end of the book which include many references to how medical students are socialized, for better or worse, into the culture of the medical profession. A must-read.
Ehrlich, A. & Schroeder, C. (2009). Medical Terminology for Health Professions (6th Edition). NY: Delmar. A very good textbook that provides you with a good foundation of the terminology currently being used today in the health care field. Very comprehensive coverage, with help in pronunciation.
Klaidman, S. (2007). Coronary: A True Story of Medicine Gone Awry. NY: Scribner. Though it reads like a suspenseful murder-mystery, this is actually a true story, which makes it even more scarier. Klaidman does a wonderful job providing the history of a case of medical fraud in Redding, CA, where a cardiologist and a cardiothoracic surgeon performed hundreds of unnecessary cardiac procedures and open heart surgeries that put many in harm's way.
This book paints a scary picture of why for-profit HMOs are not necessarily the best deliverer of health services, and how such a system can result in unncessary care that pays for the bottom line. Incredibly, the author was able to present the federal raid of the Redding Medical Center, and the details of the eventual class action lawsuits in easy-to-understand language that made it easy to follow the events, while at the same time learning about the people who were involved. What is truly incredible is the fact that this went on as long as it did without setting off alarms during a time when quality improvement programs were supposedly in full swing (1990s - 2000s). Worth your time to read.
Koehler,S.A. & Wecht, C.H. (2006). Postmortum, Establishing the Cause of Death. NY: Firefly Books. Not the usual kind of book I read, but I found it at a bookstore while I was reading "Monster of Florence", which dealt with serial murders and how they were investigated. So, I thought a little background reading would be useful for understanding the investigations.
Though not for the faint of heart, it is a revealing look at what happens to your body when you no longer own it. It painstakingly explains how a postmostem is performed, and how foresenic scientists explain unusual causes of deaths that are usually investigated. This knowledge will help you to understand what goes on during a murder investigation, which can be useful if you are a fan of true crime. Includes interesting case studies. After you have read this book, it will make you wonder why so many criminal investigations, especially of well-known people, can get so botched up.
Moalem, S. & Prince, J. (2007). Survival of the Sickest. A Medical Maverick Discovers Why We Need Disease. NY: HarperCollins. The author, a researcher and physician, takes the reader on an interesting journey into the brave new world of Genomics. While Genomics is a relatively new area of current scientific interest, the study of genetics has been around for a long time, once scientists were able to study life at the DNA level.
Moalem explores the scientific wonders of how humans adapt to the environment they find themselves in, and how disease has actually made us more adaptive to the life around us, at the same time serving the purposes of these pathogens' need to survive and reproduce. In the vein of symbiotic existence, the reader learns to appreciate that not only do the strong survive, but the most cleverest as well. This is a wonderful book to get you up to speed about all the basic science research that is going on these days and what they have learned about how we continue to evolve and change as we tango with whatever we share our existence with.
Mukherjee, Siddhartha. (2010). The Emperor of All Maladies NY: Scribner. The DEFINITIVE history of cancer! Mukherjee, a physician, is a gifted writer who made reading about the most dreaded disease to plague mankind for centuries a must-read. As he provides an historical narrative of how cancer has been around for so long, he also provides a companion narrative of the various treatments for various cancers over time. He offers the hope that we may someday conquer the dreaded disease in its many manifestations because of how our medical knowledge has changed Man's approach to conquering the disease. Reading this book will help you appreciate that cancer cells, like humans, will do anything to survive. We just have to survive longer than they do.
Skloot, Rebecca (2010). The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks NY: Crown Publishers. This is the fascinating story of an African American woman who died from an extremely rare aggressive form of cervical cancer, but her cancer cells continue to live on even today, some 50+ years later. These cells have been used for medical research all these years and have tremendously enhanced Science's understanding of many diseases and phenomena that would not have been possible without the availability of living human cells that can be grown outside the human body.
Skloot has done a wonderful job in raising the reader's awareness of who this woman was and the contributions her cells have made to Science and Medicine. You will also get to learn about her life, her family and what happened to her children and grandchildren. And, you will really want to know all about Henrietta, and how wonderful she was to people who knew her, and how great the loss was when she died, at the age of 30.
You will also develop an appreciation of the lives of African-Americans growing up in the South and the kinds of family relationships they grew up in. And, you will understand why it is so important to communicate clearly what it is you want to say to avoid any misunderstanding. Perhaps, the saddest lesson to come out of this book is how no one in the medical establishment ever bothered to explain to Henrietta's family what happened to her. It took this writer to right the wrong experienced by this family for so many years. If I could request an author to write my biography, I would request Skloot. Great book, not to be missed!
Bailey, D.M. (1991). Research for the Health Professional. A Practical Guide. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company. A hands-on textbook/workbook that will take you step by step through the whole research process. Excellent way to organize your research, thoughts AND notes.
Chalmers, I., & Altman, D.G. (Editors) (1995). Systematic Reviews. London, England: BMJ Publishing Group. A systematic review is another name for research review (See review on Light & Pillimer's book). A methods-based text on how to choose what you would include in a systematic review. While favoring clinical trials, related literature such as corrections, letters to the editors and other criticisms of such trials are considered important in a comprehensive synthesis work. Introduces the Cochrane Collaboration, which is a European effort that seeks to collect and disseminate systematic reviews electronically. This is one way such reviews can stay current as our knowledge base constantly changes. A good critique on the limitations of meta-analysis gives this text a balance approach as to what a researcher can expect from systematic reviews.
Clark, M.J (2003). Community Health Nursing. Caring for Populations 4th Edition Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. An excellent comprehensive textbook that covers everything you need to know about public health nursing.
Crombie, I.K. with Davies, H.T.O. (1996). Research in Health Care. NY: John Wiley & Sons. While most of the cited research is based on Britain healthcare delivery system, the authors have managed to provide a universal perspective to correct health research methodology. EXCELLENT. Last couple of chapters on data analysis and how to report what you find are great. You have to love a book that says, "Basically the computer is an idiot which can count and process data with incredible speed." (p. 235.)
Gehlback, S. H. (1993). Interpreting the Medical Literature. 3rd Edition NY: McGraw Hill. Great text on what to look for when you are trying to conduct a literature review and there are over thousand articles in each area you should evaluate to do a good job. Everything from looking at the study design, the appropriate use of statistics, and the validity of the interpretations and conclusions the authors have arrived at in a research study. Reading this book will save you time as you will tend to get overwhelmed by how much research has already been done and you are just trying to make sure you are not duplicating the work of what appears to be a whole universe of ardent researchers at the cutting edge of every area you are trying to explore.
Girden, E.R. (1996). Evaluating Research Articles From Start to Finish. CA: Sage Publications. Want to learn how to critique research, or, do you just want to be a saavy research consumer? Girden will walk you through one example of each research design, and then you are on the own on the second example. Useful in providing you with a method to look at research, with a list of questions to ask yourself (and the author) about the usefulness of the research.
Light, R.J. & Pillimer, D.B. (1984). Summing Up - The Science of Reviewing Research. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. [THE AUTHORITY ON RESEARCH REVIEWS] Literature review for its own sake is known as a research or systematic review. If you want to summarize a body of research in a summary statistic, then that's meta-analysis. This text provides an excellent overview of how to synthesize research findings - summarizing the most poignant points. The authors debate the value of "narrative" (qualitative) and "number" (quantitative) approaches to reviewing the literature. Should we pursue "verstehen," or is "effect size" enough? How does script formation affect the way we analyze information? A good adjunct to Creswell.
Lorig, K., Stewart, A., Ritter,P., Gonzalez,V., Laurent, D., & Lynch, J. (1996). Outcome Measures for Health Education and other Health Care Interventions. CA: Sage Publications. The appendices are the most useful part of this text, which extrapolate from the authors' experiences with the Chronic Disease Management Program. Samples of various health measurement surveys are included with some information about how to use them for evaluating health education programs.
Melnyk, B.M., & Fineout-Overhold, E. (2011). Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing and Healthcare: A Guide to Best Practice Pa: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. An excellent introduction and resource textbook about what it means for any healthcare provider to follow the principles of evidence-based practice. Provides many resources to use for researching and finding references that can be used as the basis for developing guidelines and strategies towards effective practice.
Petitti, D.B. (1994). Meta-Analysis, Decision Analysis, and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. NY: Oxford University Press. THE DEFINITIVE TEXT ON SYNTHETIC STUDY METHODS. This excellent text provides the foundation with which to understand these three methods that are being currently extensively used in analyzing secondary health data. Don't miss chapter 15 for the author's critique of these three methods.
Reigelman, R.K. & Hirsch, R. (1989). Studying a Study and Testing A Test. How to Read the Medical Literature. MA: Little, Brown and Company. BEST TEXT ON CRITIQUING THE MEDICAL LITERATURE. Most examples deal with clinical medical research. Excellent coverage on explaining why deficiencies are deficiencies, with cases to practice your newly-developed critiquing skills. You never thought you had it until you complete a case and find things wrong... and wow! wah-la - an informed research consumer!
US General Accounting Office (GAO-PEMD-92-19) Cross Design Synthesis: A New Strategy for Medical Effectiveness Reseach. (1992) An excellent overall of meta-analysis, as it was understood then - in 1992. "Cross-synthesis analysis" attempts to assess outcomes of clinical studies by meshing findings with available non-study data. This technique theorizes that the weaknesses of randomized clinical trials can be compensated for by a database of patients treated by doctors outside of clincial trails. Thus, combining data from trials and database analyses would make the most of the strengths of each kind of collected data.
Alpha Center. (1995) Working with Large Insurance Databases: Avoiding and Overcoming the Pitfalls. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. A good guide to analyzing secondary data found in large insurance databases. Not that you would have access to such data unless you work for an insurance company, or a research group - this guide does show that such data are not such a goldmine of usable data. If you are willing to clean it up you may be able to use it for research, but remember - secondary data are still inferior to the data you collect solely for your research.
Burns, L., Bradley, E. & Weiner, B. (2012). Shortell & Kaluzny's Health Care Management: Organization Design & Behavior, 6th Edition Delmar, Cengage Learning. A very comprehensive textbook that covers everything a healthcare manager should know to navigate the healthcare system. Also, provides good coverage of the effects of technology and the impact of electronic medical records.
Capezio, P. & Morehouse, D. (1993). Taking the Mystery Out of TQM. A Practical Guide to Total Quality Management. Now TQM will no longer be a mystery, but a took in ensuring good outcomes. And excellent intro to all the instruments commonly used with TQM, as well as a history of those who developed the various techniques.
Cartin, T.J. (1993). Principles & Practices of TQM. Believe it or not, Quality is not only a health-based concept. It became the foundation for an engineering perspective that seeks to proactively address poor manufacturing processes by taking a preventive rather than just a corrective approach. (Hmmm, sounds like Public Health to me.) Quality became the core concept for a whole industry philosophy known as Total Quality Management (TQM). Though written by an electrical engineer, it's actually not that technical that you wouldn't understand it without an engineering degree. A good in-depth but not too overwhelming intro to the whole concept of TQM as it is being applied in Industry today. If you happen to be working in a setting that's trying to adopt TQM, don't be too surprised that it's not being done right. According to Cartin, it can take up to 5 years to implement, and that's with the cooperation of everyone in the entire organization. But, it does work and makes any company that adopts it a lean and mean machine that's competitive enough to survive in a lean and mean competitive marketplace.
I can't see TQM happening in any bureaucracy with more than two levels in the hierarchy (and that's a rarity if there ever was such an organization that would consider itself a bureaucracy). You should thank your lucky stars that the Government Performance and Results Act ever got passed in 1993. Now at least government agencies will have to make an effort to be accountable to the Public. Though not exactly TQM, it will probably take at least 5 years, if not longer to see some results.
TQM probably works best when a business that started off as a mom and pop enterprise turns out to be a smashing commercial success that it can't help but expand. In this kind of fertile environment TQM can really provide a good framework for business growth so that bureaucracies do not take over and snuff out the originality and creativity of the moms and pops who started them out to begin with. Milwaukee, WI: ASQC Quality Pres
Center for Health Policy Studies & Center for Quality of Care Research and Research (1995). Final Report:Understanding and Choosing Clinical Performance Measures for Quality Improvement: Development of a Typology. Rockville, MD: AHCPR. A research report that tries to summarize what is currently known about outcomes research, from process to outcome measures. Excellent summary charts of what current researchers are using and collecting with performance measures they have developed to evaluate quality of care.
Center for Quality of Care Research and Education, Harvard School of Public Health, & Center for Health Policy Studies. (1994). Development of a Typology of Clinical Performance Measures for Quality Improvement. Results of Literature Search. A brave attempt to present what these two groups learned about the state of outcomes research - massive confusion. A great resource for parties and agencies currently involved in such research, and an extensive listing of the types of measures currently being used.
Delamothe, T. (1994). Outcomes into Clinical Practice. London, England: BMJ Publishing Group. A compilation of presentations made by noted British experts regarding their experiences with outcomes research under Great Britain's National Health Service (NHS). Good insight into problems encountered by the various medical disciplines as they try to standardize the analysis of various types of data to assess whether or not treatments and therapies really work.
Kazandjian, V.A. (1995). The Epidemiology of Quality. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers. A good text that covers what is currently known about outcomes research - theory and practice. While the author pitches the use of epidemiologic methods in organizing health data, he doesn't effectively support his contention by the way the chapters are organized. Chapter 8 is a must-read for anyone who wants to understand what Continuing Quality Improvement is all about.
Martin, L.L. & Kettner, P.M. (1996). Measuring the Performance of Human Service Programs. CA: Sage Publications. AN EXCELLENT PRIMER FOR DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE MEASURES. The perspective is more social service, but the idea of performance measurement is generic when it comes to any public program that is supposed to make a difference for the public it serves. If you think outcome performance and output performance measures are the same except for the spelling, then you need to read this book.
Monheit,A.C., Wilson,R., Arnett,III,R.H. (editors) (1999). Informing American Health Care Policy. The Dynamics of Medical Expenditure and Insurance Surveys, 1977-1996. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. A thoughtful collection of historical essays that serve to document the development and utilization of surveys for policymaking. Really provides an inside look at how federal bureaucrats do their best to conduct survey research while dealing with the ever-changing tide of politics and uncertain funding. This book will definitely provide a good background as to why you can forget about ever getting any trend analyses done with health insurance data as it has been collected for close to a quarter of a century, and why the complexity of health insurance today is just begging for a one-payor solution that would streamline health services research that can be used for good policy making.
Newby, C. (2004). From Patient to Payment (4th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill. Covers all the basics of what a medical reimbursement specialist needs to know about health insurance. Comprehensive coverage of coding, various requirements by difference health insurance companies, etc.
Salamon, J. (2008). Hospital. NY: Penguin Press. While this is an inside look, over a year's time, of how Brooklyn, NY's Maimonides Hospital work, it is really a portrait of American hospitals today. Oh, the politics will astound you! It is amazing that medical care is provided at all, but it is, and very well, most of the time, despite the politics. Salamon is a very talented writer who delves into all the players she interview without necessarily probing too hard, but you get a very clear picture of what motivates people, from the cleaning staff to he CEO, to work in the hospital setting. If you want to understand what hospital care is all about, you should read ths book!
Schmidt, W.H. & Finnigan, J.P. (1993). TQManager. CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. A simply written book about the basic priniciples of TQM, and how a manager working for an organization interested in implementing TQM can do so. Has a series of forms that answer questions about what such a manager should be thinking of.
US General Accounting Office (March, 1997). Measuring Performance. Strengths and Limitations of Research Indicators. GAO (GAO/RCED-97-91). A look at how research can become more accountable for the money being spent, both in the public and private sector.
U.S.G.A.O. (May, 1997).(GAA/HEHS/GGD-97-138) Managing for Results. Analytic Challenges in Measuring Performance. An evaluation of how federal agencies are doing in trying to meet the GPRA (Government Performance and Results Act of 1993) requirements. While it is understandable why federal agencies balk at coming up with performances measures, it is an important step towards professional accountability to those who pay the bills.
U.S.H.H.S./U.S. Public Health Service/CDC. (October, 1996). Conference Summary Report- Moving Toward International Standards in Primary Care Informatics: Clinical Vocabulary. Summarizes the 1995 New Orleans meeting about developing consensus on how to computerize patient records. A difficult task on an international scale, but maybe we can still learn something from the Tower of Babel.
U.S.H.H.S./U.S. Public Health Service/CDC. (1992). Using Chronic Disease Data. A Handbook for Public Health Practitioners. Using available US government statistics for research: mortality data, hospital discharge data, behavioral risk factor data; age-adjustment techniques; categorizing diseases; legislative mandates regarding data.
U.S.P.H.S./Office of Public Health & Science. (1996). Cost-effectiveness in Health & Science. Project Summary. A good appraisal of the weaknesses associated with cost-effectiveness studies, and how to correct the methodology to improve their use in outcomes research.
Argyrous, G. (2000). Statistics for Social & Health Research. With a Guide to SPSS. London: Sage Publications. FOR DATA ANALYSIS - READ THIS BOOK FIRST. An excellent basic textbook about data analysis. What sets this book apart from others covering the same topic is explaining the process of data analysis organized by level of measurement. Thus, all the statistical procedures are presented within the context of the type of data one has to work with. Having read this textbook, I can truly say that this is THE textbook to study from if you want to develop a conceptual understanding of data analysis beyond the tasks of numbers crunching. Excellent step-by-step sections on using SPSS to perform the necessary statistical procedures. Except for a blatant error on pages 295-6 (I won't say what, you should be able to figure this one out), the book is well-written and worth having as part of your statistical library.
Armenian, H.K., & Shapiro, S. (1998)Epidemiology and Health Services. NY: Oxford University Press. An excellent text on the application of epidemiological principles to health services research. Covers public health surveillance, general population studies, case investigations, case-control methods, randomized controlled trials, screening, and analytic approaches. The final chapter on meta-analysis is excellent.
Brown, R.A., & Beck, J.S. (1990). Medical Statistics on Microcomputers. A guide to the appropriate use of statistical packages. London: British Medical Journal. Not as computer oriented as the title would lead you to believe, but actually an excellent biostatistical text that gets right to the point. How to handle, summarize and analyze data the right way. THE BEST TEXT FOR GIVING A CONCISE EXPLANATION OF THE MOST COMMON STATISTICAL PROCEDURES FOUND IN THE BIOMEDICAL LITERATURE.
Brownson, RC, Remington, PL, Davis, JR. (1993). Chronic Disease Epidemiology & Control. DC:American Public Health Association. Excellent foundation text for those working with chronic diseases A second edition came out in 1998, but I only had access to this one. Reading this in 2004, the statistics are probably somewhat outdated, but chronic diseases remain chronic diseases, and surprisingly, very little has changed in over a decade regarding its causes and approaches to controlling them.
Kuzma, J.W.(1998). Basic Statistics for the Health Sciences. 3rd Edition CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. A good basic textbook of how statistics is used in conducting health-related research. Does provide some basic epidemiologic measures and public health application. Good organization and well-written.
Le, C.T. & Boen, J.R. (1994). Health and Numbers. Basic Biostatistical Methods. NY: Wiley-Liss. Unfortunately, does not live up to its preface as a "friendly" biostatistical text. Warnings of what is not covered for being beyond the scope of the text makes the coverage spotty. Probably good course text if the teacher is willing to work on the problems with students in class. Greatest strength is in its analogy of hypothesis testing with trial by jury, and interpreting results from statistical procedures. Weakness lies in its lack of explanations for many of the formulas presented.
Institute of Medicine. (1994) Health Data in the Information Age. Uses, Disclosure, and Privacy. WASH, DC: National Academy Press. As usual, IOM takes on another issue with health policy ramifications that will continue to plague us into the next century. A good scholarly book on what health data are, the problems with storing such data in national databases, and some ideas on what can be done to safeguard such data for the sake of privacy. Read my review in Data Quality.
Lang, T.A., & Secic, M. (1997)How to Report Statistics in Medicine. Annotated Guidelines for Authors, Editors, and Reviewers. PA: American College of Physicians. FINALLY, a guide on how medical research should be reported in the literature!! With this text in print, now there really is no reason for poorly written research reports to be in print, nor for any medical researcher not to know how to write up their research in an appropriate fashion. And for research consumers - this text will tell you what you should be looking for when you read the literature.
Munro, B.H., & Page, E.B. (1993). Statistical Methods for Health Care Research. (2nd Edition). Philadelphia, PA: J.B. Lippincott Co. Includes a floppy disk of the statistical program MYSTAT, which is a simplified version of SYSTAT. (EXCELLENT EXPLANATIONS OF ALL THE STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES YOU WILL EVER WANT TO ATTEMPT) Plus - how to interpret computer-generated output from SPSS.
Spilker, B. (1986). Interpretation of Clinical Data. NY:Raven Press. What to do with the data you've collected from clinical studies. Hundreds of "How-to" tables. Working with efficacy/safety data.
U.S.H.H.S./U.S. Public Health Service/CDC. (1992). Using Chronic Disease Data. Handbook for Public Health Practitioners. Using available US government statistics for research: mortality data, hospital discharge data, behavioral risk factor data; age-adjustment techniques; categorizing diseases; legislative mandates regarding data.
Updated: 12/18/2016 R93
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